Physiology Facts


Physiology Sites


Return SAS Home
e-mail Kevin C. Hartzog

SAS' Physiology Page

Fall Final Study Guide



  • What is the function of the skeleton?
  • Name the major bones of the arm and leg.
  • Why is the skeleton important to red blood cells?
  • Compare and contrast the forearm of a rat and a bat. Why is one better at flying, and the other is better at running?
  • What is different between the teeth of carnivours, herbivours, and insectivours?

Nervous System

  • What is the function of the nervous system?
  • What is a neuron?
  • Name and describe the five mechanoreceptors involved in touch.
  • Name and describe the two visualreceptors. Where are they found?
  • Name and describe the chemoreceptors involved in taste.
  • Describe how the nose is involved in taste, using examples.
  • What are neurotransmiters?
  • Through which part of a neuron does neurotransmiter enter the nerve cell?
  • Through which part of a neuron does neurotransmiter leave the nerve cell?
  • What insulates neurons? Does that insulation help transmit neurotransmiters faster? Why?
  • How is sound transmited from the air, through the middle ear, and then through the inner ear?

Cardiovascular System

  • Compare and contrast the pulmonary and the systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system.
  • In which circuit is blood oxygenated?
  • In which circuit is oxygenated blood delivered to the body?
  • Name the chambers of the heart.
  • Name the four major heart valves, and describe what each valve specifically do.
  • Describe the pathway of blood through the heart.
  • What is the job of arteries?
  • What is the job of veins?
  • What is the job of capillaries?
  • Compare and contrast the physical structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries.


  • Be able to tell the difference between blood cells and blood plasma.
  • Name the two major types of blood cells, and describe what they do.
  • What is the name of the protein involved in carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide? How many can it carry at one time.
  • What determines whether hemoglobin will pick up oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide, or whether hemoglobin will do the exact opposite?
  • Be able to compare the size of a red blood cell and hemoglobin.

Respiratory System

  • What are the four major organs (parts) of the respiratory system?
  • What is the function of the trachea and bronchi?
  • Why does air exchange occur in the alveoli?
  • What benefits does the nasal cavity provide the respiratory system?
  • Which lung is larger?
  • How many lobes does the right and left lung have?