The Five Senses
Digestive System
Endocrine System
Growth and Development

Physiology Study Guides

Fall Study Guide

Physiology Facts


Physiology Sites

A New Breath of Life. SF Chronicle
Chronic Bronchitis. American Lung Assoc.
Global Tuberculosis Control. World Health Org.
Invisible Epidemic. Scientific American 1999
Influenza. Medinfo
Pneumonia. American Lung Assoc.
Tuberculosis. World Health Org.
What Are Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst.
Why do we get the flu most often in the winter? Are viruses more virulent in cold weather? Scientific American

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SAS Physiology


Circulation & Breathing Unit


  1. To identify the structures of the Respiratory Organs and Circulatory System.
  2. To describe the function of the Respiratory Organs and Circulatory System.
  3. To describe how both affect your metabolic rate.
  4. To describe how both systems affect muscle use in aerobic and anaerobic work.

Respiratory Organs (Subunit)


  1. To identify the structures of the nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, and lungs.
  2. To describe the function of the larynx.
  3. To show the relationship of the structure of the respiratory organs to the function of the air-conducting passages.
  4. To locate the pleural membrane and define its function.


Upper Respiratory Tract Pg 273, Fig 16-1.

Nasal Cavity

Where air enters out respiratory system. High surface area The Conchae Fold in the cavity. Cause turbulence, whirls and swirls in the air flow. Dust particles bounced into mucus, cleaning the air. A filter. Warms the air before it moves on. Think of a cold day, when air rasped your nose and lungs. Saturates the air with water. The Septum 2 wedge shaped cavities (holes) separtated by the septum (a partition). Cavites called external nares or nostrils. Cartilege On end of the nose, attached to the nasal bones.

Superior Concha Pg 278, Fig 16-3 (a) drawing, (b) electronmicrograph

Covering of the uppermost (turbinate) bones in the nose. Holds nerve endings, sense of smell here.

Fine, hair-like cell extensions that air flows over.

Paranasal Sinuses (near the sinuses) In the Frontal, Maxillary, Ethmoid, and Sphenoid bones. Resonance chambers. Makes sounds louder, like speaking through a tube. Pharynx In the back of the mouth. Connects there to the nasal passages. In Embryo, lungs develop from. Lymphatic tissue develop here also (i.e. tonsils) Glottis Lower portion of the pharynx ends here. Opening into the larynx. Vocal cords surround the rim of the glottis. Eppiglottis Flap of cartilage fits over the glottis when you swallow. When it does not completely close, you get food or fluids down your larynx. Larynx The Voice Box. Triangular chamber. In men, the Adamís Apple. Plates of cartilage. Thyroid 2 plates Form the laryngeal prominence (Adamís Apple proper). Cricoid Shaped like a signet ring (High School Ring), with thickened area directed back to the trachea. Lies below the thyroid cartilage. Membranes connect it to upper trachea. Arytenoid Cartilages Vocal Cords Attached to Arytenoid cartilages and membranes. Space between the vocal cords = opening of the glottis.

Lower Repiratory Tract Pg 276, Fig 16-2(a).



Tube about 109 mm long and 18-25 mm wide. Looks like a tree trunk. Alternate bands of membrane and cartilage. Flexible. Attached together by bands of smooth muscles. Lined with ciliated mucosa Pushes air down the tube.

Esophagus (Not respiration) Lies behind the trachea. Aligned with openings in cartilage bands. Possible to swell when swallowing. Like a snake that has swallowed a mouse. (Anaconda) Bronchi

At lower end, trachea divides into two branches. Right slightly larger and more verticle. Left accomodating the heart. Lined with ciliated mucosa Pushes air down the tube. Further divided into secondary bronchi. Secondary Bronchi divided into bronchioles. Division continues down to alveolar ducts. Alveolar ducts terminate in aveolar sacs.

Looks like a bunch of grapes.

Sacs lined with alveoli. Pg 281, Fig 16-4, (a) drawing. (b) cross-section of alveolus.

300 milion alveoli in both lungs.

Lungs Externally Cone-shaped organs. Fill the pleural portions of the thoracic cavity. Apex of lung slightly above clavicles. Internally Root of the lung. The primay bronchi and pulmanary and bronchioal vessles bound together. Base of Lung Concave, rest upon the Diaphram. Left Lung Superior and inferior lobes Right Lung Superior, middle, and inferior lobes. See Bronchi Covered by Pleura, a membrane. 2 layers, visceral pleura completely covers the lung. Parietal pleura lines the thoracic cavity. The pleural cavity. Lies bewteen the pelural membranes. Containes serious fluid, lubricates the pleurae to prevent rubbing.