Midterm Review 2


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Fall 2001
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Biology 10X

Midterm Study Guide 2

  1. Animal Kingdom
    1. General Body Plan.
      1. Anterior: front;
      2. Posterior: rear;
      3. Dorsal: back;
      4. Ventral: stomach
      5. Symmetry.
        1. Asymmetry.
        2. Radial symmetry.
        3. Bilateral symmetry.
      6. Digestive tract.
        1. Dead-end digestive tract.
        2. One-way digestive tract.
    2. Compare and contrast the Animal Phyla
      1. Cnidera
      2. Annelids
        1. Oligochaetes (Earthworm)
        2. Polychaetes (Marine worm)
        3. the external and internal anatomy of a Earthworm.
      3. Mollusks
        1. Clams, Snails, and Octopus
        2. external and internal anatomy of a Clam.
      4. Arthropods
        1. Millipeds
        2. Centipeds
        3. Insects
        4. Arachnids
      5. Vertebrates
        1. Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals
        2. the external and internal anatomy of a Frog.
  2. Plant Kingdom
    1. General Plant Characteristics
      1. Non-vascular Plants
        1. Liverworts
        2. Hornworts
        3. Mosses
      2. Vascular Plants Ferns
        1. Gymnosperms
        2. Angiosperms
      3. annual, plant that germinates from seed, blossoms, produces seed, and dies within one year.
      4. biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial.
      5. perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial.
      6. herbaceous plant, plant whose stem is soft and green and shows little growth of wood.
      7. woody plants, are tough, are covered with nongreen bark, and enlarge in diameter by the accumulation of annual layers of wood.
      8. gametophyte, phase of plant life cycles in which the gametes, i.e., egg and sperm, are produced. The gametophyte is haploid, that is, each cell contains a single complete set of chromosomes, and arises from the germination of a haploid spore.
      9. sporophyte, the diploid plant form, with each cell containing two complete sets of chromosomes.
      10. xylem, a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the roots
      11. phloem, the part of a vascular bundle and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
      12. Root Support and anchorage for the plant water and nutrient absorption
      13. Stem Support for leaves, flowers, fruits, and/or seed
      14. Secondary adaptations
        1. water storage
        2. spreading underground (tuber)
        3. creeping along the ground (stolen)
      15. Leaf
        1. Photosynthesis
        2. Secondary adaptations water storage
        3. protection (spines)
      16. climbing (tendrils)
      17. Tissue Dermal:
      18. Cork/ground tissue
      19. Vascular Tissue (xylem and phloem)
      20. Development apical meristem, where cells divide.
      21. Primary differentiation
        1. cork/cambium or vascular tissue
      22. Secondary differentiation
      23. Leaf arrangement alternate
        1. opposite
        2. whorl
      24. Leaf vein pattern Palmate
        1. Parallel
        2. Pinnate
      25. Flower Characteristics
        1. Monocots (Handout 88) One cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf) develops on the sprouting plant.
        2. Xylem and Phloem ungrouped in stem.
        3. Dicots (Handout 88) Two cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf) develops on the sprouting plant.
        4. Xylem and Phloem grouped in stem.
        5. Basic Plant anatomy (Handout 83)
          1. Petal
          2. Sepal
          3. Receptacle
          4. Stamen
          5. Pistil
        6. Hypogynous Flowers (Handout 83)
          1. superior ovary: the ovary lies above the sepals.
          2. The sepals, petals, and stamens attach directly to the receptacle.
          3. One or more pistil.
          4. Example: Geranium
        7. Perigynous Flower (Handout 83)
          1. Superior ovary: the ovary lies above the sepals.
          2. Hypanthium: the base of the sepals petals, and stamens are fused.
          3. One or more pistils.
          4. Example: Rose
        8. Epigynous Flowers (Handout 83)
          1. inferior ovary: the ovary lies below the sepals.
          2. The fusion of the bases of the sepals petals, and stamens to the ovary portion of the pistil.
          3. One pistil.
          4. Example: Fuchsia
        9. Floral Specialization (Handout 89) Petals
          1. Sepals
          2. Flower symmetry
    2. Compare and contrast Plant Divisions.
      1. Liverworts
      2. Horsetails
      3. Conifers
      4. Anthozoa (Angiosperm)