Midterm Review 2
Kevin C. Hartzog
Midterm Study Guide 2
- Animal Kingdom
- General Body Plan.
- Anterior: front;
- Posterior: rear;
- Dorsal: back;
- Ventral: stomach
- Radial symmetry.
- Bilateral symmetry.
- Digestive tract.
- Dead-end digestive tract.
- One-way digestive tract.
- Compare and contrast the Animal Phyla
- Oligochaetes (Earthworm)
- Polychaetes (Marine worm)
- the external and internal anatomy of a Earthworm.
- Clams, Snails, and Octopus
- external and internal anatomy of a Clam.
- Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals
- the external and internal anatomy of a Frog.
- Plant Kingdom
- General Plant Characteristics
- Non-vascular Plants
- Vascular Plants Ferns
- annual, plant that germinates from seed, blossoms, produces
seed, and dies within one year.
- biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle,
as distinguished from an annual or a perennial.
- perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for
several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or
- herbaceous plant, plant whose stem is soft and green and shows
little growth of wood.
- woody plants, are tough, are covered with nongreen bark, and
enlarge in diameter by the accumulation of annual layers of wood.
- gametophyte, phase of plant life cycles in which the gametes,
i.e., egg and sperm, are produced. The gametophyte is haploid,
that is, each cell contains a single complete set of chromosomes,
and arises from the germination of a haploid spore.
- sporophyte, the diploid plant form, with each cell containing
two complete sets of chromosomes.
- xylem, a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide
support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the
- phloem, the part of a vascular bundle and forming the food-conducting
tissue of a plant.
- Root Support and anchorage for the plant water and nutrient
- Stem Support for leaves, flowers, fruits, and/or seed
- Secondary adaptations
- water storage
- spreading underground (tuber)
- creeping along the ground (stolen)
- Secondary adaptations water storage
- protection (spines)
- climbing (tendrils)
- Tissue Dermal:
- Cork/ground tissue
- Vascular Tissue (xylem and phloem)
- Development apical meristem, where cells divide.
- Primary differentiation
- cork/cambium or vascular tissue
- Secondary differentiation
- Leaf arrangement alternate
- Leaf vein pattern Palmate
- Flower Characteristics
- Monocots (Handout 88) One cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf)
develops on the sprouting plant.
- Xylem and Phloem ungrouped in stem.
- Dicots (Handout 88) Two cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf) develops
on the sprouting plant.
- Xylem and Phloem grouped in stem.
- Basic Plant anatomy (Handout 83)
- Hypogynous Flowers (Handout 83)
- superior ovary: the ovary lies above the sepals.
- The sepals, petals, and stamens attach directly to the receptacle.
- One or more pistil.
- Example: Geranium
- Perigynous Flower (Handout 83)
- Superior ovary: the ovary lies above the sepals.
- Hypanthium: the base of the sepals petals, and stamens are
- One or more pistils.
- Example: Rose
- Epigynous Flowers (Handout 83)
- inferior ovary: the ovary lies below the sepals.
- The fusion of the bases of the sepals petals, and stamens
to the ovary portion of the pistil.
- One pistil.
- Example: Fuchsia
- Floral Specialization (Handout 89) Petals
- Flower symmetry
- Compare and contrast Plant Divisions.
- Anthozoa (Angiosperm)