Student Work:

Nick Barnum
David Bituin
Jing Chen
Johnson Chen
Lori Cheng
Joseph Chiang
Kura Cohen
Kuang, May Dan
Maurice Hightower
Jeff Huang
Jeremy Hui
Keithrie Jennings
Christina Khalil
Rowena Kumar
Jacky Lao
Louie Lau
Joseph Laurente
David Liang
Jing Liang
Diana Lu
Cherry Mendoza
Diana Merino
Ashley Mooring
Sweetie Mortensen
David Nguyen
David Nguyen
Mina Pan
Patricia Nolan
Jessica Ramos
David Ross
Maria Silao
Sam Tang
Bich Ha Tran
Helen Tran
Diana Uriarte
Michael Vo
Kenny Wong
Peter Wong
Angel Xie
Calvin Yao
Peter Yee
Derell Young
Danny Yu
Pei Xan Yu


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Evolution Essays 2002

 

Nick Barnum

530 Million years ago there were no living creature alive on land also there was no grass either. In a place called the burgess shale where there are dinosaurs, fish and other related type fossils paleontologist used certain tools to dig out these fossils such as shevels, crow bars, chisels, hammers, brushes and magnifing glasses. A man by the name of Dr. wittington found a creature simalir to an elephant. This creature had a trunk which was used for getting food also this creature had an unusaul feature it had 5 eyes by studing this creature Dr. wittington named it the opabina. Two traits that protected the opabina was it's 5 eyes and trunk. During a new era called the cambrain era there were 10 thousand new species that had developed. In the cambrain era there was a creature called a Animalocarus this creature had legs, fins and arms this creature captures it's food by it's arms. The fins and legs helps it swim and walk. One of the only creature still found today since the cambrain era is the picaya. The picaya has a special feature that many creatures don't have and that is a notochord which is similar to a spine. This is a common trait for all chordates, fish, amphibans, reptiles, birds, mammals, and humans.

In Death valley paleontologist found fish fossils that were able to live in fresh water. I think it was hard for salt water fish to move into fresh water because the fish will die because the water is to fresh for them there used to living in salt. There was a certain trait that allowed the teraspod a salt water fish to survive in fresh water. That trait was they had a protected shell and a kidney to pump the water out of the blood steam. After more species moved from sea water to fresh water a certain trait called the back bone begin to develop. The back bone was a skeleton surrounding the notocord. The backbone is something solid for muscles to pull against this helped increased speed and power. The fishes survived in water because of it's gills. A fish called lungfish a relative of the eusthenopteron had gills and a swim bladder which allowed the fish to float it had mutated into a lung. This was caused by the fish living in anaerobic water which consisted of low o2 so the fish got rest of it's o2 from the air. In a evolutionary advantage the ancestors of salamanders received limbs that gave them the ability to crawl on rocks in shallow waters. The trait that finally allowed the Ichtyostega to walk on land was there skeleton structure such as the rib cage to protect the organs and keep them in place.

David Bituin

Evolution is the progression of a population according to their environment. Evolution occurs by different things such as rays, mutation, and lots of other things. Evolution can occur from a period of time. A population can be isolated in one place and it will eventually start to evolve over time. This whole process was all portrayed in a short movie that explained evolution and how water creatures came to walk on land.

Before freshwater creatures, even before the dinosaurs there were bacteria. These bacteria were the first organisms. At first they started out as single-cell organisms. For millions and billions of years bacteria were the only living thing on Earth. Then about 1.5 billion years ago a new organism called protist surfaced. Some of these protists were multicellular and this was a great advanced in evolution and it was the spark that ignited new forms of life that lived underwater.

In the short evolution movie, it showed the steps of evolution and how the water creatures lived and evolved into a more advanced species. In the Evolution movie there was no life on land and all of the life was underwater. A creature named Opabinia, which had a trunk and 5 eyes, was similar to a modern day elephant except for the fact that it lived underwater and was around 10 times smaller. A creature during the Cambrian era evolved and gained a very helpful trait, which were spikes that covered its body protecting it from predators. An animal during the time which, was believed to be one of the top predators looked like a jellyfish with a hole in the middle of it. It trapped and guillotined its prey and then continued to eat. A vast advance in the Cambrian era was the Picaya, which had a rod going through its body called a notochord, which is very similar to a spinal cord. This notochord allowed the Picaya to move very fast and be very flexible.

An advantage that some of the species had was the ability to move from the salt water to fresh water. For some of them they couldn't because their cells would explode. One of the luckier species was the Teraspid, which had a shell that prevented water from coming in. It had a kidney but the only weak point of the Teraspid was the gill because water was able to get in through there. A creature, which started evolutionary advance, was the Eusthenopteron, which had lungs, which enabled it to breathe above water.

The Ichtyostega gained legs and ribs to support its vital organs enabled it to survive on land. The ribs let it be able to support its own weight. Hell Creek is around 68 million years old and is located in Montana and Dakota. The dinosaurs evolved to be more of meat eating kind of dinosaur. The famed T-Rex was located in Hell Creek. In Labrea Tarpits, which is located in Los Angeles, it is around 90 thousand years old. There are beetles and flies located there with mammoths and native horses. Over 100 thousand bird fossils were found in the Labrea Tarpits.

In Mazon Creek located in northeast Illinois there were many fossils found that showed a link to evolution. Mazon Creek is around 300 million years old and was during the Paleozoic Era. The dinosaurs had to evolve because of the climatical drift and the weather. The Tullimonster is one of the dinosaurs that can only be found in Mazon Creek. The Tullimonster is a very unique dinosaur because it has no internal skeleton. Liaoning is located in Northeast China and is around 100-150 million years old. There were many fossils found there such as the Protarchaeopteryx and the Caudipteryx. It was during the Mesozoic Era and the dinosaurs evolved to keep them warm. In Green River, which is around 60 million years old, it was found in Colorado in Rock Springs Wyoming. It was the Eocene period and had many fish and flying dinosaurs there.

The movie showed us how the water animals evolved to be able to walk and survive on land. It showed their whole food chain and us the early stages of evolution and an in depth look on how these creatures looked and how they reacted with their environment. We learned a lot about evolution and the basic steps of evolution.

Jing Chen

Everything starts to evolve with just a simple little thing, sometimes you will not notice that until it becomes larger and the shapes changed, too. As time goes by, all living things would become more complex, in addition, the population of spices might grow up or become extinct. In the evolution movie called " Other", talks about how things would evolved as time passed by and what would the organisms do to adapt to the new environment, etc.

Long before dinosaurs extinct, there was no land, every organism lived in the marine. It starts from five hundred thirty million years ago. The first group of organisms found in the Burgess Shale. The scientists used hammers, crow bar, small drills and other tools help dig up the fossils from the Burgess Shale. They discovered many fossils. One of the animals was Opabinia. The Opabinia had five eyes, and a trunk that like an elephant, and a month underneath. They used the trunk to capture food. Other organism was found as known as Hallucigenia. Hallucigenia had the spiky around on their bodies, so other creatures would not eat them easily. During the Cambrian era, there were about 10,000 species developed in Burgess Shale. One new and more complex creature started in Burgess Shale; it was call Animalocarus. The Animalocarus used its arms to capture food, and then it could bite into it easily for them. The species developed fins and legs on the bodies to help them swim and be able to escape faster. There is specie, which still survived now called Piciya, it has a notochord, which helps it to swim and escape much faster. A type of fish called Teraspid found live in fresh water in Death Valley, the Teraspid build up shell and lungs on them so they could protect themselves to survive easily. Ichtyostega was the first creature that could able walk on the land. The Ichtyostega got strong rib to keep the organs in place so it would be safe from crash by the gravity.

What had shown from the movie just as the same now, most of the organisms (living things) start to build up more parts for body. This helps to adept new environments, and be able to protect themselves. More and more populations are growing, and the environment around people is changing, too. Every living thing on Earth just like the same, all start with the simplest forms, then begin to develop up more complex to try to adept the environment and protect themselves. As human try adept, more species that are complex might start to develop.

Johnson Chen

All Living things in the earth were evolved from one cell, and after thousand and thousand years or longer. They finally had an evolution, they changed to another living things. They start changing the body or growing their body. Some low levels living things start grow up wisdom on their own. So they change to another level that higher then they were. Like human, human were evolved by ape-man and they keep getting smarter, they can invent different kind of things that they needs. The other Evolution movie, it show how the living things change their living system, and how they evolve to another kind of living things. Anyways all of those living things are evolve by one cell.

530 million years ago, there was no living creature alive on the land, because all of them are lived in the seas. They all are the sea or ocean living thing, they swim under water even they had a foot. Some of them just like some animal in the earth of today. They look likely and all action are likely too. Some happened had made them evolve to another living things, they change the the way they live, they strat lived in the land, and walking on the land, but some of them still can swim well. All of those living thing had a food web, it doesn't matter they lived in the seas or the lands, they had the same food web, the smallest living things eat by the biggest living things. There was a sea living thug named by Dr. Whittington called "Opabinia" was a big living things. it had trunk and grab, and it had five eyes on top of it's head. And one small living things can protested themselves by their "Spikes". Anyway, after long age, they all will became a fossil and bury under the ground. Just like the animal' fossil under the ground. The "Green River" like a rain forest, and the people think those fossil are 68 million years old. The "Hell Creek", we had know about it was around 15-20, it is in the Eocene period, and it is 40-60 million years ago. The fossil are not only found in the America, it also found in Asia, the "Liaoning" it found in north east China. And the fossil is 150 million years old. And the one closest of us are the "La Brea Tar Pits" it founds in L.A. And it is 40000 years old. The last one is call "Mazon Creek" it is all around of mud, and it is 300 million years old.

The paleontologist had used Crow bars, hammers, picks, chisels, shorels... to dig or search out where are the fossil is, some times they had found some likely fossil, but some times they had a big surprised, they had found some fossil they never seen it before. They had search the fossil every where. They had found out how the fossil get cut, and what was the cuter. They used all technology and scientific knowledge to found out the cut and cuter.

However the cell is evolve very quick under the ground, just like a short review of how earth' living things evolve. First the cell, evolve to the flat worm, and then keep evolve to different kinds of living things. Just like a rain forest. So the evolution happened so quick and evolve to a rain forest.

Lori Cheng

Evolution changes population, as well as from one species into a new species due to mutation of their DNA over a period of time. In the "Other" evolution movie, it talked about how life on Earth came to be. Every living organism started out as bacteria. From bacteria, they evolved into eukaryotes, then into multicellular organisms. From there, they developed tissue and that's basically how life formed. Each organism went through some kind of mutation, which caused organisms from living in the marine ecosystem to living on land.

The earliest organisms started out as bacteria. One of the first to appear was cyanobacteria, which are photosynthetic, meaning they release oxygen gas into oceans. Another group of bacteria is the eubacteria, which cause disease and decay. They are related to the archaebacteria, another group. They had to end other ways of producing energy since they evolved with no oxygen in the atmosphere. From archaebacteria, came the protist, the first eukaryotes, which consist of a nucleus in their DNA. From there, organisms evolved into multicellular organisms, which allowed cells to divide and form more complex organisms. Next came tissue evolving within the now complex organisms. Since they were evolving into something new, something else had to be produced from the mutation, which was tissue. From there on, came these different species forming and what had to be changed in order for them to be able to adapt to a new ecosystem.

Paleontologists believe that 530 million years ago, there was no living creature alive on land. However, there was an environment in the marine ecosystem. They had found many fossils in the burgess shale that once lived in the marine ecosystem. To find these fossils, they used many tools including crowbars, shovels, hammers, chisels, drifts, magnifying glass, and picks. A creature named Opabinia was found and had similar characteristics to an elephant. One thing that stood out was its long nose, which later was proven that it was used to grasp food and carry it into its mouth. Another species found was Haliucigenia. This creature was different from any other because it had spikes to protect itself from predators. Animalocarus, another creature found, was only known as the "odd shrimp". It captured its food by using its arms to grab, and then bite on it, which left a "w" shape. These arms were located on its head, which is an unusual location. There were also fins on the side of Animalocarus' legs that might have helped it to swim and walk. One fish that is still found in our oceans today is the Picaya. While every other creature went extinct, this fish didn't thanks to its notochord, which is a bundle of nerves that allowed it to react quick enough to save its population. This came to be known as the Cambrian Era, which approximately 10,000 new species developed and Animalocarus was the largest, standing at two feet long. These creatures all lived in salt water and soon became extinct so they had to migrate.

The Cambrian Era contained of soft water, so how were fishes and other organisms able to adapt to fresh watery Many creatures didn't survive the move from salt water to fresh water because their cells would fill up with freshwater and soon burst. On the other hand, the Teraspid fish did survive due to its shell, which prevented the water from getting in, and its kidneys was homeostasis to salts. More species developed the backbone after they moved into freshwater water because it stored calcium and used that from the bone when there wasn't any in the food. Although the species, which evolved in salt water became extinct, new ones developed within freshwater and so did many more land creatures.

Some fish already had gills and then their swim bladder had mutated into lungs, causing them to be able to live on land. They used their lungs when oxygen in the water was low. That's how species today, like amphibians, came to be which evolved from fishes. Species that sprouted limbs enabled them to crawl in shallow water away from predators. All of these creatures still had to be in water but also on land until Ichtyostega had evolved, which had a ribcage that enabled it to finally walk on land. Its ribcage was to protect its organs and without the ribcage, its body weight would collapse on itself. Ichtyostega basically led the rood to all land creatures evolving, including dinosaurs.

Some of the oldest dinosaur fossil sites are Liaoning, Hell Creek, and Solenhofen Limestone. Liaoning is the oldest site of these three localities. It is located in Liaoning Province, China, northeast of Beijing, where it's known for the discovery of the first flying dinosaur fossil named Sinosauropteryx. These fossils date back to the Mesozoic Era of the Cretaceous period about 124 million years ago. Other famous fossils found there were Confuciusornis and Protarchaeopteryx. They were buried in mudstone and volcanic ash that had fallen from Inner Mongolia within the past 100 million years. They lived in a forest with trees and a lake. Next is Hell Creek, which is located in Montana. South and North Dakota, and Southern part of Canada. This site dates back to the Mesozoic Era of the Cretaceous period and fossils found there include the Theropod Vertebrae, which is 8.5 mm long and 8 mm wide and also the Osteoderm. There were many more land and water species found compressed into mudstone. The environment consisted of pine trees, a river system, volcanoes, and hot desert like temperatures ranging from 103 03F to 112 2F. The last locality is Solenhofen Limestone, which dates back to the Mesozoic Era of the Jurassic period. It is located in Bavaria, Germany where Archaroplenix was found, the earliest bird fossil ever discovered. You will find lagoons, corals, sponges, gymnosperms, palm trees, starfish, and sand dollars. These localities mark the age of dinosaur fossils found, as well as recent discovered places.

Other localities include the Green River Formation, located in western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southwestern Wyoming, which existed during the Cenozoic Era of the Eocene period. Fossils found there were the Knightia fish and the oldest bat fossil ever found named Icaronycteris Index, which was in mudstone and Pac stone. The climate was warm and tropical with temperatures ranging from 15C to 20C with palm and sycamore trees, cattails, and a lake. The youngest locality is the LaBrea Tarpits located in Los Angeles, California. These fossils date back to the Pleistocene period (2.5 mya) of the Ice Age. The temperature was around 90F and smelt of oil, the area was clumpy with tar, and oil seeps. Summer was especially hot and sticky and so was the asphalt. Fossils found here were the Dire Wolf, LaBrea stork, herbivores like horses, mastodons, bison, and carnivores like the mountain lion and saber tooth tiger. The lived in a grassland type environment with wood, leaves, cones, and seeds. Each and every one of these localities has a different environment located in different parts of the world and fossils that were found. The older the site, the more interesting the fossils were.

As you can see, every living creature started out as bacteria and went from that to a dinosaur. They went through evolution by mutation of their DNA to form a new species of their off springs. That's basically how we have so many different species on this planet. Evolution is all about changes that species have to go through to adapt to an environment. The first organisms lived in salt water and they later had to make the move to fresh water. All it takes is one organism to survive the move so that once it happens, it can reproduce a whole new population. From fresh water, came land, where limbs started to evolve. That's why we have both marine and land creatures. So evolution happens from day to day and it can't really be stopped.

Joseph Chiang

In the beginning, there was no life on this planet. After a few million years, life in the form of bacteria began to evolve. They were very simple creatures that didn't do much except convert chemicals into energy. They ruled the planet for a billion years before another single celled creature appeared: the protists. These creatures had many different characteristics that eventually allowed some of them to evolve into more complex and mufti-cellular creatures.

At first, the only forms of life 530 million years ago were in the sea. They were only in the forms of amoebas and single-celled creatures. They gradually evolved into various types of mufti-cellular creatures. The next step that they took was forms of fish. This caused a huge explosion of diversity. When some of the fish evolved into predators, the other creatures had to evolve some defense mechanism in order to survive. Evolution is a mutation in cells who proves to be desirable and increases among the population. Some of the favorable mutations at that time were multiple eyes to detect predators, spikes, and a notocord, a strand of nerves along its body that allows for a quick reaction. These allowed the creatures to escape from predators. Because of the arrival of the predators, there were approximately ten thousand species during the Cambrian era.

Eventually, some fish adapted to fresh water and began to live there. Usually, cells and salt water fish would burst when they made contact with fresh water. However, the first freshwater fish had two things that protected it from bursting: a shell to prevent fresh water from entering and a kidney to regulate homeostasis. Eventually, all fresh water fish grew bones, since calcium was usually rare in fresh water. When calcium was scarce, the fish would dissolve its bones and use the calcium in there. The fish evolved to breathe air out of the water because sometimes there wasn't much air in the water they were in. This was the first step to fish living on land. The next step was the evolution of salamanders. They had legs, so they could crawl into shallow areas to hide from predators. Although these would eventually create a terrestrial creature, it was still not enough for them to survive out of water. The final step was a ribcage to support its organs, since the pressure was different out of the water and its body would eventually collapse due to the force of gravity on the land. Many of these fish fossils can be found in a place called Hell Creek. This place was located in Montana, South Dakota, and the Southern part of Canada. One of the creatures that lived there was a vertebra that measured 8.5 mm long and 8 mm wide. The osteoderm was no bigger than a penny. The creatures were from the Mesozoic era and their environment was hot and desert-like. Another site, which contained more fossils on the evolution of fish, was the Green River formation. The location of it was Western Colorado, Eastern Utah, and Southwestern Wyoming. This was during the Cenozoic era, approximately 49.7-50.9 million years ago. The types of creatures here were the Knightia fish and the oldest bat fossil found, the incaronycterisindex. The climate was warm and tropical. There were lakes, rivers, and cats tails, along with sedimentary mudstone.

A third site, which shows another step in the evolution of life, was the Solahofen Limestone. The significance of this site is that the creatures found here were mainly early birds of the Jurassic period. They were found 155 million years ago. The location of these creatures was Bavaria Germany. The earliest bird was called the Archoroplenix. The plants were mainly palm trees.

The La Brea Tar Pits was the last site. The time period of this site was the Pleistocene period, approximately 2.5 million years ago, during the Ice Age in what is now Los Angeles. The temperature was about -30 degrees. There was clumpy and smelly oil in the locale with tar and rock asphalt, which becomes sticky and oozy in the summer. The types of animals discovered were horses, bison, camels, mountain lions, dire wolf, storks, and saber tooth cats. The plants discovered were woods, leaves, cones, and seeds.

What I have written was a quick summary of the evolution of life as we know it and life as it was. This written timeline shows that all life once originated from the same ancestor. While all of us were once one, we are now very diverse and span several thousand species. There were many mutations in each species that decided which lived and which died. All of the creatures here today survived the test of nature and lived through everything that was listed above.

Kura Cohen

What is evolution? Evolution is the change of a population or community through time. Evolution takes years and years. On Earth it took three and a half billion years. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing evolution.

There was no living creature or plant 530 million years ago. The first creatures in the world were bacteria. The bacteria started evolving and made eukaryotes. From eukaryotes there were then multicelleur species. Then a couple million years later, there became many sea creature. Some of them were the Opabinia, which was one of the first animals. The Opabinia was weird because it had a trunk like elephants and used it to eat with them to. Then there was Hallucigencia which had five eyes, a trunk and a mouth below the trunk. Another animal was the Animalocarus. Animalocarus was a unique animal because it trapped its food with its arms and eat it. The Animalocraus also had fins on the side of its legs that helped it walk and swim. Then later was the Picaya, which is still in the ocean now, was more developed because it had a notochord. Anotochord is a large nervous system that made the Picaya move fast and react fast. Then there was the Teraspid. The Treaspid could breathe in fresh water unlike any other fish. The Teraspid had a kidney that pumped out water and it had a shell that barley let in water. The fishes that lived in fresh water were more developed because there was more calcium in the river making bones strong. Then it was Eusthenopten, the Eusthenopten lived in acerbic water which is water that has little oxygen. The Eusthenopten get oxygen from the air. Another animal is the Salamander, the Salamander could walk under water instead of swimming in shallow water. The most developed animal was the Ichtyostega because it could walk on the ground because it had a rib cage that could protect its organs from caving in under water.

I conclude the fishes evolved fast from first having many eyes to walking on water. I think it means that the world is changing so fast, everything is adapting to its environment.

Kuang, May Dan

Evolution is when a population change through time, genetically and physically. The earth's evolution took like 3.6 billons years. A lot of life form had live here, and each of them look a lot to survive until today. A lot of organisms learn a lot in order to adapt to their environment. The good thing is that when adapt to their environment they eventually reproduce offspring that has that mutation. When things evolve, the population will eventually because they are moving a lot and when they move they have to adapt to their environment and mutations occur. Animals many years had evolve, they not necessary gotten better but then they have mutations that made them more complex and their looks changed.

The first life forms that live on earth are bacteria. The bacteria are prokaryotes, at first they didn't have any organelles, they are just organism that can move around. Then one of the two kinds of bacteria evolve into protist, they are known as the second life form on earth; the eukaryotes. Then we took a big step when the protists start to evolve into multicelluar. The organisms then became more complex and bigger. After the organism became multicelluar, it starts to develop into more complex organisms. The first really classify as animals are from a place call Burgess Shale. The Burgess Shale is during the Ordovician period, the Cambrian era. Burgess Shale is located at an area call the Burgess Pass which is at the British Columbia's Yoho National Park. The-ecosystem there is ocean so then paleontologists nowadays had found a lot of marine animal fossils there. One of the ancient organisms that extinct today is call the opabinia. It has a trunklike thing above its mouth. Another funny feature it has is that they have five eyes. The five eyes are very important when you are living in the water with predators swimming around. More eyes you get more views and you can resist the attack it is even here. Another group that had mutation that help them survive are the hallucigenia. They had spikes on their body that can protect them from getting attack by their predator. The predator, which is call the animalocarus also have features that can help them capture their prey easier. They have; fins and appendages, and together they make a prefect match because it enables the animalocarus to walk and swim at the same time.

Because of a natural disaster in the ocean, all the animal extinct and was cover but one of the animal survive, it is the picayas. One of the reasons why it survives is because it has a notocord, also known as a spinal cord. The mutation enables them to have a stronger nervous system so they can be more paranoid to their environment. Because they have a notocord, paleontologists believe that they evolve into cordates, which is more in the tertiary period. Due to the disaster fishes that survive move to the Death Valley. The problem about is that they live in salt water at first, now that they are moving to fresh water. Some fishes that can't adapt will blow up and pop because water will kept on moving into their body. Because of that some fishes mutated and have grown a shell to prevent water from getting in. The problem with that is that they can't cover the gills, because the fish have to breathe. So then they mutate into a kidney that can help them remove water from its body.

The development of a real of a spinal cord lead to a lot of advantages the fishes will have. Because the salt water they used to live in have a lot of nutrients but now in the fresh water they don't have a stable rate of nutrients, having bones help you store nutrients and they allow the fished to swim faster and more force. One of the fish that can breathe oxygen outside water is the lungfish Although the lungfish already have gills, but due to the-unstable rate-of oxygen in the water they have to learn how to breathe oxygen outside of the water. Once organisms had learned how to breathe oxygen, the next challenge they will have to face is walking on land. The salamanders are the first one to have limbs it taken a large step of living on land, because it can crawl.

Then at last the ichtyostega learn to walk on land, because it got a mutation of rib cage. On land, there's gravity, so then if they walk gravity will pull them down and their organs will be crush. Now that they have a rib cage, it can prevent them from crushing their organs, so they can finally walk on land. When they can walk on land, there are even a larger variety of animals that evolve.

Hell Creek, which is about b5-67 million years ago. Long after animals have learn to walk on land. Hell Creek represent the Cretaceous period, the Mesozoic era. Hell Creek is located between the North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Mutated animals-found there are dinosaurs. Trey are tyrannosaurs, triceratops and anatotitan. Some dinosaurs are carnivores and some just eat plants. They are large animals with strong teeth. The place they live in is rain forests, which provide the dinosaurs a hot environment. La Brea Tar Pit is located in California, the part which we call downtown of Los Angeles today. The time period they -are in is the Quaternary period, Cenozoic era. Animals found there are saber tooth cats, mammoths, and the dire wolf. Animals live in grassland, and the weather is hot. Lastly, Hadar is located in the Eastern part of Africa. It is the Tertiary period, Cenozoic period. The main fossil they uncover is Lucy, the first-human. Lucy is about 3 million -years old.

Eventually a simple bacterium had lead to us to the place we are in today. We wouldn't even imagine if the animals didn't mutated, we wouldn't be here at all. Luckily, evolution never skips a step, that's why we can we clearly on how and what happen in order for us to get here.

Maurice Hightower

Evolution is the adaptation an animal makes to survive in it's environment. From the beginning of life on this earth animals have been going through evolution to stop from becoming extinct. The very first animals that lived on this planet evolved from single cell organisms to multi-cell organism, they did this to keep surviving and stay one step ahead of death. Survival of the fittest is what keeps things evolving, the never-ending battle between predator and prey, to stay on the food chain or be wiped of

Humans, mammals with the ability to think and create. Humans evolved from the very beginning and are still evolving as we speak. A worm like fish in the beginning evolved something that kept it alive; this animal evolved a spinal cord. This spinal cord allowed it to send information to the rest of the body rapidly. With the ability to do this, it was more maneuverable when being chased by predators. Without this fish humans wouldn't be alive right now. The closest ancestors to humans are Prime apes. From Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens. Millions of years of evolution among many animals all brought together to create humans. Even though all these years of evolution have occurred, we are still evolving. Evolution never stops, pauses, there will be many more millions of years of this until possibly the end of time. Humans are now at the top of the food chain, but for how long. Evolution waits for no man.

Flight, the ability to defy gravity by using wings. Flight has been evolving among animals for millions of years. There are hundreds of species of animals that have the ability to fly on the earth. Whether gliding or power flying these animals rise above the surface of the earth and cast a shadow down on those who watch. These animals most likely evolved the ability to fly to adapt to their surroundings. Their surroundings not only being the environment, but also being the animals living with it. There are two scenarios that might have evolved flight with these animals. The Tree down scenario and the Ground up scenario. When animals run up a tree, jump off, and begin to soar, this is the Tree down scenario. When an animal runs and starts flapping it's wings to get altitude is the Ground up scenario. Flight keeps evolving until there is only one type of flight, pure flight.

Plants evolve to stop from being on the bottom of the food chain. They also evolve to stay on the food chain and become a predator instead of prey. Many plants grow thorns and start producing poison to warn off animals that are trying to eat them. This is a way of evolving to adapt to your surroundings. If plants do not keep evolving, they will become extinct eventually. If plants become extinct, all the rest of the animals will become extinct also. Plants are the producers in the animal chain, without them there would be no life. Plants were the first to start evolving and most likely will be the last.

Adaptation is what keeps everything in harmony. Things that don't adapt become extinct and make more room for those that do. Survival of the fittest keeps the food chain complete. From the producer to the carnivore, this is the circle of life. Evolution is what keeps scientists guessing of what coming next. Animals must evolve sooner or later, if they want to live. Evolution keeps the war waging between predator and prey.

Jeff Huang

Evolution is the development that organism changed populations of species, which occurs over time; it started from simple form to more complex form. Evolution is happening and evolution will continue to happen. In this world, almost all forms of life were evolved slowly from simple to complex. Everything started off with a single simple cell. After the time passing by, the cell would divide into more and more cells, which called meiosis. Eventually, the simple organism was formed. It took like over billion years in order to form a different species with intelligent. Every living organism in the world today evolved from different species and had different periods and ages. We knew that because of the fossils that we found in different places and different level of the ground. We can organize the ages of the fossil by the law of supposition, which the oldest fossil is in the bottom of the ground and the youngest is in the top of the ground. Being study of fossils is a great way to know more about the evolution.

The earliest traces of life are found as tiny fossils in 3.5 billion years old rocks form the ancient seas. The first cells in earth were bacteria, which called prokaryotes. Unlike today's animal and plant cells, the first cells did not have internal compartments that could perform special function. That means they were so simply. At the time oxygen was rare on the earth, but the prokaryotes did not need oxygen to survive and they could release oxygen gas into the oceans. As oxygen increased, the bacteria entered larger cells then evolved to be eukaryotic, which was single celled prokaryotes. Unlike the bacteria, the eukaryotic had has a complex system of internal membranes and DNA that is enclosed within a nucleus. As they had DNA, the meiosis occurred in eukaryotic cell and the cells kept dividing up and evolved to multicellular. The first known fossils of multicellular organisms were found in 630 million year old rocks from southern Australia. About 100 million later, multicellular organisms evolved to have tissues and many very unusual animals appeared.

Burgess Shale's time period the Cambrian age, which is 540 million years ago, there was no living creature alive on land. It is located in Yoho National Park in the rocky mountains, near Columbia and Canada. Due to the fossil that scientists had discovered, they all lived in the seas at that time. A few of the fossils found in the Burgess Shale are: Anomalocaris, a large predator that is like a arthropod, it is 60cm or more; Marrella, a smaller arthropod; Vauxia gracilenta, sponges; Tuzoia, bivalved crustacean; Ottoia and Leanchoilia, it is a worm; Opabinia, 5 eyes on top of its "head" and a trunk so that it could use to grab food to the mouth; Dinomischus, a flower looking animal. Those organisms were all soft body. Later on, the ancestor of fish, which the organism like worm evolved. The scientists almost discovered some old fossils from Mazon Creek, which is about 300 million years ago during the Pennsylvanian period. There were a lot of unique animals living there for instead the Vertebrata it is an unidentified fish. In fact, "weak animal always eat by strong animal", some organism kept evolving to fish with backbone and something else. Some organisms were eliminated. Later on, there were some organisms lived in the fresh water.

Hell Creek, Cretaceous Period that was the period of the Mesozoic Era about 67 to 65 million years ago. It is located in Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. In Death Valley, they found fossils of fish that were able to live in fresh water. Because of earth movement, some of the land were crashed and formed a river and lake. Some organism had gone to the rivers and lake. The scientists had found a fossil of Teraspid fish had lived in fresh water. It had a shell and kidney, because of Osmosis, which water move into the cell, it caused the cell exploded so that the shell was good for protection. The backbone developed more after species moved from seawater to fresh water. The bones used for storing calcium and protected the body from the pressure. Some organisms in the freshwater had had gills and lungs. They needed lung to breathe, because low oxygen in the water. Some fish survived such as the lungfish. Because of evaporation, some of the rivers and lakes dyed up. Fish could not swim in the low freshwater. They evolved to have limbs so that they could craw in the shallow waters. Later on, the scientists found some fossils about the Green River Formation happened in the Cenozoic Era about 50.7 million years ago and lasted half a million years. It is located in Utah and Wyoming. The evident that organism started evolving to live in the land.

Liaoning the Mesozoic Era and Cretaceous period that was about 124 million years ago. It is located in northeast of Beijing. These fossils were dig up in fine-grained sediments. Some organisms such as Ichtyostega lived in the land because they can get more chance to survive in the land than freshwater. They could breathe more oxygen and get food easier. They had had ribs to support heart, wing, stomach and other organs. The organism evolved quickly on the land, because there were many different areas. They evolved to different kinds of animal and were able to reproduce. Some of them started to have intelligent. They hunted and got food from plants. Huang was the most successful animals with high intelligent from the evolution. Human can grab things and invent things but others animal cannot. Evolution took more than billion years in real life and not just a few thousand years. Evolution is still happening today.

Evolution is important for us to study, because it has lots of connection to our human and all the things in the world today. Some people might think that God created us. But I think that we exist today because of evolution. Human are the most intelligent animal in the world, because we have been affected by the environment. The different between human and dog that dog cannot catch thing by their hand and we do. Human can invent thing but other animals cannot. It is interesting to know that why Human are smarter and high level animal. I think we should study about the evolution, because getting deeper in evolution we can solve those question easily. We can figure out what had due to others animals and us. We also can get some idea to discover it from the fossil we found, because fossil is the great evidence about the time of Evolution.

Jeremy Hui

Evolution is the change in population short period of time. History says that heat started the evolution process. Heat is the source that caused life in this planet because heat speed up the process for the bacteria to evolve into Eukaryotes then to multicellular. When evolution occured it produced life on this planet. It created a atmosphere in which we adapted in because of the species before us adapted to it. Species from all over the world have different ecosystem in which they all look differently in size and shape.

The paleontology sites that evolution took place are Burgess Shale, Hell Creek, La Brea Tar Pit, and Hadar. These sites showed the types of animals that lived there and the type of ecosystem the species lived there. The sites showed the ecosystem of how some of these animals survived and evolved into different species. The types of environment determine what each of the species look like and what they shall eat to survive. Different sites all have different ecosystems and ways to have their remains buried so that it could be fossilise for a long period of time. We look at the types of fossils that are found beneath the surface and how old it is. The lower the fossil is makes it older than what the other fossil is on the top of the layer. Scientist have analyze each fossil and see how a fossil relates to another kind of fossils in different areas like a fish from salt water that was found later on in fresh water. Like the Salmon it has kidneys that it can use to survive the freshwater. This shows how the species survive and where it originate from. The fossils also gives proof of how the original species evolved into other different species. So the species that live in different ecosystems survive and live differently. Species look alike is because of evolution. That is how scientist fords out how does a specie relate to another different specie by using fossils in different layers of sediments.

Evolution changes the ecosystem that the species live in. It also determines the characteristic of what that species can do in its environment. The evolution also caused a ecosystem which is different species living in the same environment. The ecosystem helps the species because they need other species to feed on to survive. So different species eat specify types of species. During evolution all the species start as single cell then work its way into multicelluar cells. All species start out looking the same then as it evolves it then begins to change its shape and then stand out from the rest of them. Living in the environment lets the species adapt to its atmosphere so it can then give its ability on to it's offspring. The species gain intelligence as it develops it self. Paleontologist have found these out by looking at where all these species have come from. They have discovered that there was no living creatures 530 million years ago. It has been said that life all began under water. Paleontologist found this out by searching the mountains for fossils, which mountains were underwater back then until it grew up higher. They have found fossils with crowbars, hammers, chisels, magnifying glasses, drills, picks, and shovels. Later on they have found fossils of a Picaya which is believed to be the source we humans have evolved from. The Picaya has a notocord which humans have as well, the Picaya uses its quickness to sneak away from its predators. The species that live under water have a dangerous ecosystem because of different species eating others to survive, unlike the ancient ancestors of salamanders, they have the ability of crawling in the shallows, where predators can't reach them. As these species slowly makes its way toward land they adapt to the environment step by step. Finally the Ichtyostega the first specie to step onto the land surface. The Ichtyostega adapted to land with its ribs that protected its heart and other organs from crushing with the land atmosphere.

Therefore evolution is a big change over time. This makes the animals, insects, and humans in our world today live on as many changes will happen. So the Picaya made us what we are today and lucky it survived from its predators with its notocord inside its body.

Keithrie Jennings

Evolution is the change in populations bringing the birth of new species. After the first generation, the DNA of the next mutates. Thus, the organisms' whole genetic makeup and phenotype changes in order to adapt to its environment. The first known organisms are bacteria. These very simple organism is followed by the single celled Eukaryotes. As time pass comes the more complex mutlicellular organism called the protista. Soon we have organisms with tissues like sponges. One way we can conclude this is with remains of the actual organism called a fossil. Paleontologists spent years looking for these fossils and studying them to find traces of evolution.

Long ago, 530 million years ago, no living creature stepped foot on land but there lived a marine ecosystem. Fossils from the famous site Burgess Shale show these organisms. The Burgess Shale is known for it's very protected fossils because of it's anaerobic environment. With no oxygen and no bacteria, the fossils remained secure and in good condition. One fossil found is the fossil of the Opabinia. With five eyes and a trunk similar to an elephant's, the Opabinia uses it's trunk to grasp food. Other organisms include the Hallucigenias which spikes help protect itself. As the Cambrian era takes place, 10,000 species would develop. One organism is the Animalocarus. This great white shark of the sea had two grasping arms and a strong devouring mouth similar to an octopus. It would grab it's food with it's arms and chomp on it. It's unique legs with fins would help it swim and walk. But even though the Animalocarus was the strongest and most dominant during the Cambarian era, its the worm like, Picaya that would survive on top and leave traces of it's evolution. Showing the earliest form of the spinal cord, the Picaya was fully equipped with a notochord helping it respond quickly.

As time pass, we move on to freshwater like the site, Death Valley. Fish and other saltwater organisms would have a hard time moving to fresh water. Because of osmosis, their cells would fill with H20 and burst. But earliest form of freshwater fish would prove everyone wrong. One of the earliest fish is the Teraspid fish. Because of it's kidney and it's shell that prevented water from getting in, it was able to withstand fresh water. Another development that took place of the movement from salt water to fresh water, is a backbone. Fishes with backbones helped it store calcium and help it push harder and be more supported. Another mutation that took place is lungs that would replace the swim bladder of fishes like the Eusthenopteron. It would use it's lungs when OZ in H20 is low.

Soon organisms take the next step, walking on land. The earliest ancestors of salamanders would develop legs that help it crawl on land. They would hide from predators in shallow areas. But the real breakthrough is the trait of the Ichtyostega that would finally help it walk on land. This trait is the ribs. It's ribs would support it's organelles and walk on land.

We can say evolution has ocured by the remains these animals have left. These fossils buried in a long time tell us about new animals discovery and evolution. Fossil sites include Liaoning, Hell Creek, Green River Formation and the La Brea Tarpits . China's Liaoning is well known for it's earliest bird fossils found during the Mesozoic Era and Cretaceous Period like the Confucionnsnis, Sinosauropetryx, and the Protarchaeopteryx. These fossils from 100 million years ago are found in mudstone. Another site full of fossil discoveries in mudstone is Hell Creek. Located in Montana, North/South Dakota, and Southern Canada, the fossils are 124 million years old from the Mezoic Era and Cretaceous Period. Fossils discovered includes Osteoderm crockyloid and the Theropod Dinosaur. The next site is the Green River Formation located in Western Colorado, E. Utah, Southwestern Wyoming. Fossils like the Knightia Fish and Icaronycleris found in sedimentary mudstone are 49.7-50.9 million years old during the Eocene Era and Cenozoic Period. The last site is the La Brea Tar Pits which fossils come the Pleistocene Era about 2.5 million years ago. Located in L.A. city, fossils include the Dire Wolf and the Sabretooth.

With evolution comes big rainforests and big populations. Evolution help species to survive and pass on their generation. Species learn to adapt to it's environment and survive. With evolution, the next generation of species will be more advance with new features. It might, take years, decades, or just days, but evolution will always give birth to new and improved species.

Christina Khalil

Evolution is the change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations. As a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of a new species.

In the movie called "Evolution," a big meteor hits earth from outer spaces creating a big whole underground cave, around 60 feet deep in Arizona. There were two-science guys, Ira and Harry they take a sample from the meteor back to their lab and finds out that they were living things (single cells). They found out that it has 10 base pairs while us human only have four. Within hours after taking the sample from the meteor it evolves from a single cell into mufti-cellular organisms which takes earth over 3 and a half billion years, while it only takes the aliens from the movie around 2 weeks. In the movie called "Evolution" the alien cell started from one single cell then started to evolve into mufti-cells. Ira and Harry was amazed how fast they had grown. It takes one hour for aliens to evolve, while at the same time it takes us about 200 hundred years.

Later on Ira and Harry decides to take their whole class on a field trip to the meteor. Inside, it was very foggy, it contained methane and hydrogen sulfur. They both found out that they had evolved into flatworms in minutes. The flatworms were reproducing fast through the process of mitoses. The flatworms divides itself in half making a number of 2 the other 2 separates itself into another 2 making more and more flatworms. As Ira picked up one of the flat worm from the ground it dies right away, the flatworms couldn't adapt to their atmosphere and couldn't breathe under our atmosphere. All this had just happened around 2 days.

After a few days the alien species starts to get even more complex. They were not flat worms anymore; they evolved making the big whole rain forest. Ira and Harry sneaks down to the alien forest trying to bring back a sample for them to study. A bug that seemed to be very intelligent, rips Ira's suit open, and gets into his body.

Burgess Shale is a great example, it is located in Canada. Its ecosystem is ocean. The weather there is warm and sunny because its next to the equator. The era is Paleozoic and its period is Cambrian. Has fossils from many years ago.

The aliens evolves into many things but still can't adapt to our atmosphere, but then, days later they evolved into things that could adapt to our atmosphere. In conclusion, evolution is an adaptation of populations to change an environment. It is really interesting how they can evolve from one single cell to any giant species in just a few weeks while for us humans it takes over 3 and a half billion years. I learned that in order to adapt to an environment you first must adapt to its atmosphere. I wonder what would have happened if they didn't stop the aliens from evolving, they'd probably took over the world with their intelligence and would have killed every human being on earth.

Rowena Kumar

Evolution is a change in population. During a period of time the DNA of a certain creature changes to adapt to it's surroundings. For example, if a certain species that live in an extremely warm climate was to move to the North Pole it would not survive. Yet, after living in that environment for many years they tend to adapt arid are able to survive and breed to create other animals that can live there as well. Evolution has been happening for billions of yews; even before man. At the beginning there was only bacteria a single cell organism that later, much later, evolved into greater widely diverse and much advanced species.

Life on earth was said to begin in a marine ecosystem billions of years ago. 3.5 billion years ago there was found to be bacteria arid then oxygen and time created a change in it, causing it to evolve into eukaryotes. A eukaryotes were the first cells with compartments and with a nucleus. Bacteria evolved in to eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago. After a longer period of time the eukaryotes developed in to divers multicellular creatures called volvox. Scientists think that this change happened because of other bacteria invading the eukaryotes. This happened about a billion years ago. The multicellular volvox then developed into tissues, such as sponges, during the Cambrian period. During this period the most important changes in evolution happened. The tissues turned from anchored creatures to creatures capable of mobility.

During the Cambrian period there was approximately 10, 000 different species that had developed. One of the first known animals that were able to move was called a Hallucigenia which lived in salt water. This animal was able to survive for years it had many spikes to keep predators away. Many different vertebrates had developed in this period including the Animalocarus. The Animalocarus was an odd shrimp-like creature that was able to capture its food with little arms by it's mouth. This creature was a change from other creature found; other creatures could only swim yet the Animalocarus had legs so it could also walk. Also there evolved the first animal to have an spinal cord. The Pycaya , it is a Cordata that developed an early age spinal cord called a notocord. This enabled the creature to sense predators quickly and prevented it's extinction. These fossils were found in the locality of Burgess shale. Also many other fossils were found in the locality of Solenhofen Limestone, located in Bavaria, Germany, there was found to be Archaroplemx. This was found to exist during the Jurassic Era 15.5 million years ago. During these periods there were extreme changes of life on earth. These changes also included the migration from salt water to fresh water.

The marine creatures that lived in salt water weren't able to adopted to the fresh water because the water had no salt. If a salt water creature was to migrate into fresh water it would die because the intake of water into the cell would be dramatically high that the cells of the fish would burst. Yet, there was one salt water creature that was able to go from salt to fresh water, a Teraspid. This creature had a shell that prevented water from corning into it making it so that it could survive. Yet, the gills were exposed but that was really no problem because the animal had kidneys, homeostasis of salt. The marine creatures also developed a stronger back bone that stored calcium and enabled it to push harder causing it to move faster. Some fresh water fossils were found in the locality of The Green River Formation, located in Western Colorado, eastern Utah, arid Southwestern Wyoming, paleontologist found the oldest hat fossil, Caronycteris index and Knightia a type of fish. `this was found during the Cenozoic Era 49.7 to 50.7 mya. From salt water, to fresh the animals also migrated and adapted to land.

There was an marine animal called a Eusthenopteron which was an animal that could breathe under water arid breathe air on land. This creature lived in such murky waters that at times there wasn't any oxygen so it had to get it from the land. These animals later developed legs that enabled them to walk on land, such as ancient salamanders. These limbs helped salamanders survive; allowed them to stay in shallow water away from predators. Then finally, an animal was able to walk on land. This animal was called an Ichtyostega it was able to walk on land because it developed a rib cage to protect it's organs. Many of the land fossils were found in such localities as Liaoning, Hell Creak, and La Brea Tar Pits. In the locality of Liaoning, found in China, there was found to be the oldest dinosaur fossil, the Sinosauopetryx. This is the oldest locality, which was during the Mesozoic Era, 120 mya. Also in Hell Creek located in North and South Dakota, Montana, and South Canada, during the Mesozoic Era but later than 120 mya, there was found to be Isoderms and Theropods.. This is the second oldest locality. Last, in La Brea Tar Pits, located in Los Angeles County, there was found to be mastodons, bisons, dire wolves, and mountain lions. This is the youngest locality, which was the Pleistocene Era 2.5 mya. Paleontologist were able to find out the evolution of life by finding fossils. They would dig them up it different localities with crow bars, hammers, shovels, drills, and many other things. when they found the fossils they were examined then they found out the evolution of life.

From Liaoning to La Brea Tar Pits the different species changed from dinosaurs to mountain lions, which are still alive today, it shows how evolution has changed the different species in the world. Evolution started off as bacteria, a single cell organism, to eukaryotes, to multicellular organisms called volvox, to tissues, and and then became mobile creatures. Evolution started off in salt water. We know this by the finding of the Halucigenia a creature that had spikes. Also there evolved the first animal to have an spinal cord. The Pycaya , it is a cordata that developed an early age spinal cord called a notocord. From these salt water animals evolved animals that could live in fresh water. There was one salt water creature that was able to go from salt to fresh water, a Teraspid. This creature had a shell that prevented water from coming into it making it possible for it to survive. Yet, the gills were exposed but that was really no problem because the animal had kidneys, homeostasis of salt which made it possible for it to migrate from fresh to slat water. After salt water the animals were able to adapt to land. There was an marine animal called a Eusthenopteron which was an animal that could breathe under water and breathe air on land. These animals later developed legs that enabled them to walk on land, such as ancient salamanders. This was the start of the migration from fresh water to land. The first animal that was able to walk on land was called an Ichtyostega. It was able to walk on land because it developed a rib cage to protect it's organs. From something so simple as bacteria to an animal that can move and breathe air, evolution has changed many different animas and created many different species. Evolution is what changed our world arid everything we see around it today.

Jacky Lao

When 530 million years ago, the atmosphere in the land wasn't so strong. Therefore, there temperature didn't well for creature alive. So, many bacteria was lived in the ocean and began to evolve, we know that one day, they will move from ocean to land, so we called his time to be Marine Ecosystem.

A person who identifies the creature in the Marine Ecosystem called paleontologist. They will identify the creature by some tools (e.g. Crow bar, shovel, hammer, chisels, magnifying glass ...etc.). Dr. Whittington, the paleontologist who found the creature and named Opabinia. Opabinia was 5 eyes; this trunk is used for grab the smaller food. Hallucigenis, it have the spike to protect and attack other creature. After many years, finally go to the Cambrian Era. During about 10,00 species develop. The common one is Animalocarus. It began have arms and legs, it will grab the food by legs and chomp that; and the legs is used to swim and walk at the bottom of the ocean. Picaya is the only creature still found today in ocean since the Cambrian Era, it has notochord and bone to balance body and strongly.

In Death Valley, they found some fossils of fish were live in fresh time, but paleontologist thought that the saltwater fish is harder to live in the fresh water. The reason is their cell and organ need the salt, when the place hasn't any salt, and then they may dead by decrease the salt. But it also have some fish can live in here. Teraspid fish, it survives in fresh water because he has a good shell and kidney. The shell is preventing H20 entering and the kidney just use to balance how much salt is his body. But isn't many fish were good in here for some reason, Just like Eusthemopteron, it can't be living in the fresh water, because it breathe by lung but the 02 (oxygen) is low like zero. Many years after, the atmosphere became better to living. So Ichtyostega, the creature finally walks on land, it has ribs to support his organ to lived in the land.

The entire creatures are evolves from bacteria, when they lived in the sea, but they began ready to lived in the land; Animalocarus began have arm and legs, it is so important to live in the land. When they lived in the fresh water, they need more stuff and organ to live in there, like the Teraspid fish, they have kidney to balance his body's salt. Did they are the most best bacteria? May be not, we didn't know any good bacteria or creature are in the crust of the earth but not identify or found by person. May be many years later, we can found out and know the prefect evolution.

Louie Lau

Evolution is a change of population, physical aspects, adaptations of an organism/or species of organisms. Evolution can cause the better or the worst for a specie, which is why some species died out while others, live on. Evolution is something that doesn't just happen in an instant, but takes decades and centuries to happen.

The first living thing that was alive, bacteria, about 3,500 million years ago the most simple living thing is bacteria. Bacteria are known to be the simplest living organism is because all it does is sit around while meiosis happen. 2,500 million years later the first eukaryotes came to be. Eukaryotes are what single cell organism evolved from. 500 million years later we start seeing diverse protists which are the single cell organisms that I was talking about. After that we started to see yet more complex multicellular organism. After that about 500 more million years ago plants and animals are seen, not on land, but in the water. The blue planet is the nickname of Earth, since all organisms living today and the past originated from the oceans, lakes, etc. Once diverse numerous amount of species came to be evolution seem to happen more and faster. From animal evolving with spikes so they can avoid predators, others evolve with better nervous systems and more complex organs. Which lives? Since the predators don't have the better nervous system they are much slower and are not able to catch the prey with the better nervous system. Such as in the "other" evolution movie, the eel like fish had a notochord, which gave it more control of its own muscle, was able to dodge predators and swim away. Soon after that fishes from salt water evolved to be able to live in fresh water environments to avoid predators. Because osmosis occurs when a high concentration will burst because of water moving down a concentration graduate, the fishes from the salt water had to evolve to stop water from entering their body; they evolved with shells, scales, kidneys, backbone, etc. Which cause the possibility for them to live in fresh water. And soon after that fishes adapted to be able to breath air, leading to having the ability to live on land. Soon after that amphibians was able to live on land with organs, backbone and ribcage that help it because of gravity. That's how life was able to live on land. This all happened in 3,250 millions years.

All of this is known only because paleontologist dig up fossils with simple tools such as crow bars, shovels, hammer, chisel, magnifying glass, drill and picks. Fossils are rocks that have fallen on animals with a lot or pressure and very fast. Rocks found today are sedimentary rocks when organisms live. Organs and bones are shown clearly in fossils. That's why we have pictures of organisms that lived 3,500 million years ago.

Evolution cause us to be the way we are today and the way we'll be tomorrow, we won't know what forms we'll take and what will happen in the future so I just say we let evolution play out itself and hope for the best.

Joseph Laurente

Evolution is the change in a population and species in a certain amount of time. Through evolution, we learn how organisms develop and transform. Over the course of time, the organisms become entirely new species. In "The Other" Evolution movie, the narrator stated that there were not any living creatures alive on land 530 million years ago. But during the Cambrian era, approximately 10,000 new species developed in a relatively short amount of time. Scientists and paleontologists found many fossils and discovered who the species were and how they were like. The species that were developed had special traits and features that helped it live and adapt to their surroundings, depending where they lived.

For more than a billion years, bacteria were the only living things that existed on Earth. Then about 1.5 billion years ago, a new kind of organism, known as the protist, evolved from bacteria. Protists were the first eukaryotes that existed, and they had DNA enclosed within a nucleus and complex systems of internal membranes. Most protists were single-celled, but there were also some that were multicellular. Multicelluar organisms evolved independently many different times along with the protists. Fungi, plants, and animals were the three groups that evolved from protists and each of them evolved by themselves from a different kind of protist. For example, during the Cambrian period, many creatures were different from other creatures that are alive today. The creatures had odd structural adaptations and looked much different from the animals alive today. All organisms that are currently surviving, except plants, originated sometime during the first 100 million years of multicellular life.

Scientists have discovered and learned about animals with limbs and segmented bodies, and about different kinds of predators. Dr. Whittington a scientist found a creature from the Burgess Shale, which was known as Opabinia. Opabinia had a trunk on its body and it used it to gather food and put it into its mouth. Another example is the Hallucigenia, and it was protected because of they had five eyes, a trunk, and a mouth below the trunk. Other animals from other fossil sites, such as the La Brea tarpits, were also predators as well, such as the saber tooth cat. The saber tooth cat had a small tail, strong limbs, and was very muscular. Also, the American mastodon is another example. They were half the size of the mammoths found there, and they stood eight feet tall. They also had more teeth in their jaw, which indicated that it mostly ate leaves and twigs. Scientists have also discovered a type of marine species known as Animalocarus. Animalocarus captured its food by grabbing their prey with their arms. When they grabbed it with their arms, they were able to guillotine their prey and eat them. A special feature that Animalocarus had was that it had fins on the side of its legs, which helped them swim and walk. Scientists have also noticed special features that marine creatures had. For example, the Picaya, had a notochord, which is also known as the spinal cord. It is a common trait for all chordates, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and human beings.

Fish that lived in saltwater would have had a hard time living in freshwater because of osmosis, which is the movement of water through a cell membrane. In osmosis, the water moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. If the saltwater fish lived in freshwater, the water would accumulate inside the fish's cell and will apply a pressure that can become very great, great enough to burst the cell and make the fish explode. But some other fish were able to survive in fresh water, such as the Teraspid, because they have a shell and kidney. After species moved from seawater to freshwater, their backbones started to develop more. The backbones are the skeletons that surround the notochord, which increases the species speed and power. The homeostasis of calcium is needed in order to develop the backbones.

Since fish already had gills, some of them were able to survive because the water that they lived in was anaerobic. For example, the lungfish's ancient relative, Eusthenopteron's had a swim bladder. The swim bladder is an important organ to the fish because it helps the fish float. Eusthenopteron's swim bladder mutated into lungs, which helped it survive in anaerobic water. Anaerobic water had low oxygen, and it got the oxygen from the air. Limbs were also very useful to other creatures. The limbs, which are also considered as legs, helped many creatures move in their environment. For example, limbs gave ancient ancestors of salamanders an evolutionary advantage, because they were able to move in very shallow waters. Not only did limbs help creatures move in their environment, but ribs did as well. For example, the creature Ichtyostega had a trait evolved, which allowed it to walk on land. Ichtyostega was able to walk on land because it developed strong and sturdy ribs.

The La Brea Tarpits, which is located in Los Angeles at Hancock Park contained fossils that formed 40,000 years ago during the Pleistocene epoch, which was during the Cenozoic Era and Quaternary period. Generally, it is known as a "tarpit," but the liquid that seeps out of the ground is actually composed of asphalt and not tar. The fossils have been organized in categories by what they ate, how they made food, and their relation with each other. Evidence from many fossils showed that they were producers, herbivores, carnivores, and scavengers and decomposers that reduce and recycle organisms. The fossils that can be found in this site include the remains of herbivores such as horses, mastodons, bison, camels, and the giant ground sloth, the remains of carnivores such as mountain lions, saber tooth cats, the giant California jaguar, and dire wolves, and plant material found in the site, such as wood, leaves, cones, and seeds. They lived in an environment with a climate that was not significantly different from the present day, which was slightly more humid and cooler. Many of the plants and animals found in La Brea are identical or almost identical with the species that live in the area.

In conclusion, evolution is an adaptation of populations to changes in the environment. Living things adapt to their environment by variations in their genetics, which include mutation and reproduction. The traits and features that many of the species had helped them adapt to their environment and their surroundings. Many of the creatures have experienced changes in their appearance and in their bodies. The organisms have evolved from other organisms of the same species. The organisms were originally complex, but after a short amount of time, they evolved and became more complex.

David Liang

Evolution is the change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of a new species. Evolving from one single cell into muti cellular then into ape took us earth over 200 million. Around 530 milling years ago in a period of time called "mya" there was absolute no living things living on land, but there are many species that lives in the ocean. Mutation occurs depending what environment the species live in. It will change to whatever it needs to adapt to the environment in order to survive. Paleontologist had used many tools like hammer, shovel, small drills, etc to find all kind of fossils. The fossils shows how did the species look like million of years ago and how it develop to the species we have today.

In a period of time called Cambrian era there were around 10,000 new species had developed. One of the species is called Opabinia which a scientist named Dr. Whittington had found. Opabinia uses their trunk for grabbing food. The Hallucigenia have 5 eyes that can see from many directions that tell if their predator was coming to get them. Animalocarus captures its food by its arm, and then it will grab the food then put it in its mouth. Animalorcarus mutated to having fins because is use to allow them to swim and walk. Picaya is a species that are still found in our ocean today. Picaya had been existing ever since the Cambrian era period, which feature its notochord and is also the common trail for all the chordales fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammoth, and us human. It was hard for salt-water fish to move into fresh water. The salt-water fish is not use to the fresh waters density then they will die of something called Cell Burst. The Teraspid fish was the first fish that were able to survive in fresh water. Teraspid had mutated into having a shell & kidney. The shell & kidney allows them to survive in fresh water. The Eusthenopteron developed lungs because of the water surface don't have much oxygen so it has to get oxygen from the air by breathing by its lungs instead of gins. The traits for Ichtyostega that can finally walk on land fighting the power of gravity was it mutated into having strong sturdy ribs.

The animals from the tar pit, which existed 2.5 million years ago, which had, evolve into the animals we have today. The animals coming to the water attempting to cross the tarry surface and which it became mired in this natural death trap of theirs. The prehistoric animals are saber tooth cats, the giant California jaguar, and dire wolves. The tar pit is like a rain forest with warm weather. Also with many species that had evolved into the the giant California jaguar, and dire wolves. The tar pit is like a rain forest with warm weather. Also with many species that had evolved into the animals we have today.

Species evolve and mutated because it is needed to survive in a new environment. Species will also develop spikes on its body to keep their predator away from them. Us human will also evolve depending what is needed to keep us alive.

Jing Liang

Evolution is the process when a life form becomes more complex and advance. It is when simple organisms become more complex. When they evolve they become more intelligent and stronger. Evolution takes a long period of time. It takes us millions of years to evolve into different species.

Evolution start with living single cell organisms. These are the simplest organisms. Later it evolves into multicellular organisms meaning more then 1 cell. It takes us millions of year to evolve from the simplest organisms to mulsticellular organisms. Over time, the organisms got more complex. After a while the multicellular organisms evolve to plants and small organisms such as flatworms and mushrooms.

The first living creature lived in water. For millions of years no creatures lived on land. 530 millions years ago, no living creature was alive on land, only in sea. There were many types of species that lived in sea in the Cambrian era. 10,000 new species developed during this era. One of these creatures is call Animalocarus. It has fins on the side of its leg to help it swim and walk. It capture its prey with its arm and then he move his arm to its mouth and put the food in his mouth and eat. Another creature is the Picaya. This is the only creature that is still found today in our ocean since the Cambrian era. This creature has notochord.

During this time period many evolution happen. One of these evolutions that happened was that they could live in fresh water. Some of the things that let them survive in fresh water is shell and kidney. One of these creature call Teraspid have these features. Soon, creatures that lived in fresh water started to develop backbone. It was use to store calcium and to apply more force. As times go on, more and more traits evolve. A creature name Hallucigenia developed spikes to protect itself. Another creature call salamanders developed legs so it could craw in shallow water. After there adaptation to fresh water they started to adapt other more important environments. The biggest evolution in this time period was the evolution of the Ichtyostega. It developed ribs to support its heart, lungs, stomach and other organisms. This was important because it allowed it to walk on land. After this creatures started to live on land.

This evolution was very big because it leads to other eras. One of these eras is the Mesozoic era. This is 68 millions year ago and it take billions of years to evolve from tiny organisms to this. This site has Tyrannosaurus rex and triceratops and all these creatures lived on land. This site is an open forest that's not swampy. Another site is the Mazon creek. This is 300 million years ago. Many of the creatures in this period are extinct and evolved into more complex creatures.

We are always evolving. Some evolutions give us the ability to live and some aren't that useful and will lead to our extinction. If the evolutions give us the ability to live in an environment then we will survive and not be extinct. Evolution is very important to all living organism because we need to adapt to this environment in order to live. Evolution also gives us advantage to live. It gives us the strength and intelligence to live in this world.

Diana Lu

What would we do without evolution? Everything would be the same. Nothing would ever evolve-change. All the creatures would look the same. We would have looked exactly like the creatures that first lived on Earth. Evolution is the changing of population or species over a period of time. The movie "Evolution" explained to us about evolution in a funny, fictional, yet non-fictional way. It showed us many examples of evolution. There was just a big rock with fluid inside and within a day there where living breathing creatures and within 4-8 weeks they grew into a rain forest. It took only one hour to equal 200 million years of evolving on Earth. The movie was a great way to show us how evolution occurs. 530 million years ago there was nothing but rocks and sand that lived on Earth. It starts out as single cell organisms like bacteria and grows into larger organisms.

Burgess Shale is a great example of evolution. With the help of crowbars, chisels, hammers, brushes, shovels, magnifying glass/lens, small etc. many scientist uncovered a lot of different fossils that look similar. After days, months, and even years of looking at them they could see how one specie evolved to another. Many species started by living in water but mutated and used what they had and made it useful.

The movie "Evolution" had a meteor that landed on Earth. Two professors from a close by community college went to investigate. They chipped a piece of the rock and fluid came out so they took the fluid and saw a single cell but within hours of watching it. It was multiplying and became multi-cellular organisms. While observing it they noticed that it had ten base pairs instead of four, which it normally is on Earth. There was just organisms on the first day but by the next day when they came back they saw worms and mushrooms with a white cloud. They made their own atmosphere because it could not live under oxygen. The atmosphere consists of methane, hydrogen, and sulfur. They reproduce by mitosis. There is just one organism and then splits into two. And within weeks there was practically a rain forest. It is very diverse. There were mosquitoes, Venus flytraps, insects, etc. And just a day after there was dinosaurs. Even the primates began to show intelligence. In about 4-8 weeks everything evolved. The dinosaurs could breathe oxygen but their off spring couldn't. But as you can tell not everything adapted that well because some creatures were unable to breathe oxygen. But the time it took them to adapt was a lot quicker.

In the beginning of the movie "Evolution" there was no animals, insects, dinosaurs, etc. It was just a big rock with fluid inside. Within hours it evolved from a single cell organism to a multicellular organism with ten base pairs when normally it's only four. In about a day there were mushrooms and worms that lived in its own atmosphere that could reproduce by mitosis. Within several weeks it created its own rain forest with very high diversity. Everything evolved quickly besides the fact that they could not really adjust to Earths atmosphere really well. This is an entertaining movie that teaches us all about Evolution in a very brief amount of time.

Cherry Mendoza

Evolution changes and have changed the world. Smaller things have moved on to become bigger and better. Without such changes, everything that have life would stay simple as can be and there wouldn't be much better and advanced improvements. Smaller and simple organisms grow into more complex organisms. In other words, it grows from one tell organism to multi-cell organisms; it stared out simple then it evolves. Mitosis and mutation have something to do with the whole process -of evolution. Mitosis is needed for mutation to occur. Without mitosis; there wouldn't be any multiplying of species happening. Without mutation and evolution, us humans wouldn't be here. Take a look at the present time and compare it to million of years ago. What do you notice? Do you agree that there have been changes made within the period of time? Well, that's all part of evolution. Anyhow, what is evolution? Evolution is the change of organisms over time. In a more scientific definition taken from the glossary of Biology, Principles & Explorations by Johnson and Raven, evolution is the change in the genetic make up of a population or species over time.

As I mentioned above already, organisms were simple at first until it grew into more complex ones, moving from one cell into -multi-cell organisms. When the organisms evolved, they adapted into the surroundings by growing more and bigger than before. Based on discoveries made by scientists, it was suggested that organisms grew to adapt into their surroundings. if no adaptation was made, then the organisms wouid die and that would be the end of it. After one species die, the next of them that is born are better than the ones before as they have evolved. Based on what scientists have said, during the Cambrian era, approximately 10,000 species developed. just by looking at that, just think about how many new species were created and what traits evolved from those species. From the locality, Burgess Shale, the fossils that were found were mostly small and soft bodied because of the low oxygen level in the environment back then (Cambrian eraevolutionary explosion). As new species from back then were created while the environment changed, the species evolved into better and stronger formation. The oxygen level now is higher than before, therefore our bodies are much stronger compared to the past species that had soft body structures.

All in conclusion, individuals or population have changed over time as a reaction to their environment. Evolution change our world to be more different or diverse compared to how it was million of years ago. Without evolution everything would stay as simple organisms and this world probably wouldn't even be diverse nor have much species at all. Mitosis really helped created more individuals or populations because the splitting cause to increase the number of living things it started with. Mutation affected evolution because it changes the species within time. When one generation of species died, a new one is created; moving on with better ones. It developed into a variety of sizes and shapes from much simpler life forms into complex ones. The complexity of evolving life systems are very important to us because it all part of how we were created into these formations. The Cambrian period (545-495 mya) is an important thing evolution because it was the time of evolutionary explosion. Adaptive radiation occurred and rapid diversification of forms happened. So, if you really think about it, evolution have started ever since, which created us in the present to become much better and more advanced with better traits. Evolution and mutation have created our world to have an on going population of diverse species. Without evolution or mutation, there probably wouldn't even be much diversity and population of species in this world.

Diana Merino

Evolution the change in population or species DNA. In the movie Evolution they show how the organisms change from one point to the other, in matters of seconds. It took those organisms to evolve a few minutes and it has taken humans to evolve millions of years. In the movie when they found the flat worms they saw them split into two and then they change to mushrooms and they were changing to different organisms that were getting bigger and more were changing their appearance. After the mushrooms other organisms were evolving after them that looked like spiders and other different insects, they were also getting smarter and were changing really fast.

Their have been many different animals in the world and some of the first one's were the dinosaurs they existed millions of years ago and in different regions like Mazon Creek, Solnhofen Limestone, Liaoning Providence, Hell Creek and Green river formation those are some of the areas were they found some of the dinosaurs fossils. Those places are located in different parts of the world. And in different climates were some of the animals survive.

In the other movie that was called Evolution they were also showing how the organisms first came from and how they were developing. One of the earliest organism was the bacteria which was the organism in were the others developed out of then it was the first Eukaryotes which came from the bacteria and after that it was the early eukaryotes which was different from the first one that then was the multicellular organisms and the tissue etc., also other organisms developed. After the Precambrian era it was the Cambrian period and different times of periods past. In the movie they were showing how the different organisms first developed, in 530 million years ago no creatures lived on land than. Than they were showing some of the fossils that the paleontologist found, they were using crowbar, shovels, hammers, chisels, magnifying glass, drill and picks to find them.. By discovering the different fossils they saw what kind of animals really existed, so they were putting together the different pieces and discover how the organism that they were founding really looked like. Then they started working with the fossils and they were putting together the parts that they were founding what belong together and by doing that they discovered how the organisms looked and how they survive. They discovered that during the Cambrian era approximately 10,000 species had develop. Most of the organisms that existed back than were different than how they are today, some had five eyes and a trunk which it use to capture its food. Others looked like worms cover with lots of spikes every were.

Picaya is the only creature that still lives today in the ocean, it has a notocord. After the organisms that were living in the sea they found a fossil of a fish that live in fresh water. One of the things that help the Teraspid fish to survive in fresh water with out salt was that it had a shell that help it prevent water from coming in. The back bone would help the species move from salt water to fresh water because it would help them push harder. One of the first species that started walking in the shallow water was an ancestor of the salamanders to run away from its prey (predators). The Ichtyotega finally walk on land because of the ribs which help it support its organs. But it always would live near the water to keep it self moist.

There had been a lot of species that have live on earth their have probably some fossils of different species that have not been found today. Some people don't believe in those creatures because they think that they really did not existed that is just a myth and that the fossils are just like any rock, that is people who try to make others believe in them. Their have been a lot of fossils that have been found and they show how some parts of the animals really are and how they really looked like so by that they discover how they ate and survive. A lot of the creatures really look different now compare to how they looked back than now everything is different and things might still change like they did.

Ashley Mooring

Evolution is the change in the genetic composition of a population during a period of time. As a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of a new species. Everything starts out as one thing then grows into another. Smaller and simple organisms grow into a more complex organism. So it grows from one-cell organism to a mufti-cell organism, and it starts simple then it evolves. Mitosis and mutation are the two main things that have to do with evolution.

Mitosis is needed in order for mutation to happen.

When things started to appear they stated of as simple as the can get. Some even looked like they came from outer space. They started of as water species. Then as time
went on the stared to produce more better kinds of species. They could defend themselves better than their late relatives. Different types of areas had different types of species. And every time a new species was made all different types of species were made which changed the environment. When one species dies out another is formed similar to the resent one. When species started to develop a rib cage they were able to walk on land. Because if a species that didn't have a rib cage tried to walk on land, they would have been crushed.

In conclusion, evolution is an adaptation of population to change an environment. It took over 3 billion years for humans to evolve. I learned that in order to adapt to an environment you must first adapt to the atmosphere. Evolution has caused the world to have an on going population of diverse species. Without evolution or mutation there would probably be not be a wide spread of diversity. I think evolution is a great thing because with out it we would not be here.

Sweetie Mortensen

In the beginning there was nothing at all. Until it was the Precambrian era which occurred three thousand five hundred million years ago. Back then it was found that the earliest fossil bacteria were found. The name of this bacteria is archaebacteria. At the end of the Precambrian era the first nucleus evolved, protist which are eukaryotic organisms. After the multicellular algae evolved, soft bodied animals like jellyfish were the first of the kingdom Animalia to evolve. This period was called the Paleozoic era, which was five hundred forty four to two hundred and forty five million years ago. The first plants were ferns which had evolved in the Silurian period that was four forty to four hundred and ten million years ago. Following the evolution of many common organisms today during teritary period human like animal evolved (hominids) such as fungi, plants, animals and protist. All bacteria, evolved from a single unicellular organism.

Archaebacteria unicellular prokaryotes, that produces energy with out oxygen. They exist in extreme environments representative of early earth conditions; extremely acidic hot and without oxygen. Among archaebacteria evolved cyano bacteria that created oxygen. Unlike cyanbacteria acquires energy by forming methane and through eubacteria may have evolved; it resembles similar yet different characteristics. Apparently all eukaryotic organisms such as protist, fungi, animals and plants are evolutionary products of archaebacteria.

Approximately five point forty four to six hundred fifty million years ago protists evolved. They are organisms with nucleus in which DNA is stored. Protista is the most diverse kingdom evident in fossil recoveries. Protists are a combination of both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Some protists acquire energy because they're autotrophic and others by hunting bacteria and other protists (heterotrophic). Protists, the first eukaryotic organism gave rise to future eukaryotic organisms: plants, animals and fungi.

Soft bodied animals (fungi, animals) and plants as well as protists are eukaryotes that evolved from the first prokaryotic organisms were the first eukaryotic organism after protists. Plants and fungi were the first organisms to populate the land. Mammals were first present during the Perimian period; (around two hundred eighty six to two hundred forty five million years ago) rats and small insect eaters. During the Cenozoic era larger mammals gave rise to animals similar to those of human like animals.

Although it may seem alarming homo sapiens evolves from bacteria. Hominids resemble human, (which I don't believe in) they can walk on two legs, skeleton structured thus resemble everyday humans. Aystralopithecus is linked humans and apes, in other words saying humans are the evolutionary result gradual changes in monkey like organisms. During the Ice Age, mammals dominated earth, human like organisms. Some change in the environment or way of life for monkey like animals gave rise to humans. Around one point eight million years ago during the Quaternary period, humans evolved.

In conclusion to all of this I find it interesting how humans and other living things evolved from a bacteria many many years ago. Altogether it took time to evolve from one thing to another but in all it took the Precambrian era to the Cenozoic era for humans to evolve. So therefore I came to an understanding that evolution is the process of acquiring more and more sophisticated structures, not simply the addition of different structures.

David Nguyen

Evolution, the changing of population, the genetics process where mutation of the organisms forms in another atmosphere, then later adapts to the surroundings creating more populations over time. All living things on earth started off as one cell. The diversity of earth was probably caused by evolution. The organisms are originally simple and at a later point in time, they become more complex. Within hours they became multicellular which causes the organisms to form really fast making the population to grow and grow as the days go by.

About 530 million years ago, no living creatures lived on land because they all lived in the seas. There were many types of species that lived in the seas in the Cambrian Era. 10, 000 new species has developed and evolved that era. The creatures had the ability to live under water but not on land. Though the time has gone by, many new species now live on land and on water. Fossils of species have been discovered by a scientist named Dr. Whittington, which is called the Opabinia. The Opabinia has very large trunks in which is used to grab. Also, it has five eyes on the top of its head. Today there are few species that live in the water since the Cambrian era.

Another change in evolution happened when the species started to live fresh water. The life advances when the creatures are able to have a life in the new place. Like some fishes were able to live in fresh water but was not capable of living in salt water because of osmosis when the salt and water does not balance or equal. The same goes to the salt-water fish. If it is in the fresh water it will die. One way a fresh water fish go from fresh to salt water can be the use of something that can protect them from the salt. They continue to develop new parts where it can protect them to get to new things like having new kidneys to get an advantage in the water life.

Millions of years ago, the dinosaurs were created due to evolution and once they were extinct, their skin began to evaporate and what is left is their bones or fossils. The bones or fossils eventually got buried over a period of many million years. There are many dig sites where the fossils are located. Some of these locations where some fossils have been sited such as Hell Creek, Liaoning, Mazon Creek, Green River Formation, and La Brea Tarpits, Having many different fossils in many different dig sites means that there were many different types of dinosaurs.

Hell Creek is located in Montana and the Dakotas. It started in the messozoic era which is about 68 million years ago. Fossils such as the tyrannosaurs Rex have been spotted there. Liaoning is also one of the oldest location site which also takes place in the messozoic era. Very hot and dry and is located in Northeast China. Fossils such as birds were buried. Mazon creek is mainly located in Illinois and is 300 million years old in the carboniferous period. Place consist of rivers, streams, and dry land. Tully monsters are one of the typical fossils there. Green River Formation is located in Wyoming and Colorado in the Eocene period. Very mild and has rivers. Fossils of birds have been located there which could help find out how they could fly and is carried to today. La Brea Tarpits is located in the Southern California district. It is 40 thousand years old and is very cool and humid. Animals such as camels and mammoths live there and fossils of birds, insects and mammals were located there.

Evolution is all about forming, changes, and staying alive and living in different areas. To avoid extinction, species must keep reproducing where we form new species of the same kind and they form new lives of their own. Developing a whole specie take lots of time, some getting use to like adapting to a new environment. Our evolution took some time to our surroundings. Our evolving depends on the environment on how long it takes us to figure out to live in that area.

Nancy Nguyen

Evolution is when a population change through time, genetically and physically. The earth's evolution took like 3.6 billion years. A lot of life form had live here and each of them survive until today. A lot of organisms have to learn to adapt to their environment. The good thing is that when they adapt to their environment they eventually reproduce offspring that has that same mutation. When things evolve, the population will eventually go up because they are moving a lot and when they move they have to adapt to their environment and mutations occur. Animals many years had evolve, in many ways too. It could be that they got more complex or their looks change.

The first forms that live on earth are bacteria. The bacteria are prokaryotes, at first they didn't have any organelles, they are just organisms that can move around. Then one of the two kinds of bacteria evolve into Protista. They are known as the second life form on earth, the eukaryotes. Then we took a big step when the protistas start to evolve into mufti-cellular. The organisms then became more complex and bigger. After the organisms became mufti-cellular, they developed into more complex organisms. The first really classify as animals are from a place called Burgess Shale. The Burgess Shale is during the Ordovician period, the Cambrian era. Burgess Shale is located at an area called the Burgess Pass which is the British Columbia's Yoho National Park. The ecosystem there is ocean so then paleontologists had found a lot of marine animal fossils. One of the ancient organisms that extinct today is called the Opabinia. It has a trunk-like thing above it's mouth. Another funny feature it has is that they have five eyes. The five eyes are very important when you are living in the water with predators swimming around. More eyes you get more views and you can resist the attack. Another group that had mutation that helped them survive are the hallucigenia. They had spikes on their body that can protect them from getting attack by their predator. The predator, animalocarus also have features that can help them capture their prey easier. They have fins and appendages, and together they make a perfect match because it enables the Animalocarus to walk and swim at the same time. Because of natural disaster in the ocean, all the animals became extinct but one animal that survive was the Picayas. One of the reasons why it survives is because it has a notocord, which is also known as the spinal cord. The mutation enables them to have stronger nervous system so they can be more paranoid to their environment. Because they had a notocord, paleontologist believe that they evolved into cordates. Because the disaster fishes that survive, they had to move to the death valley and the problem about that was that they lived in salt water then they are going to move to fresh water. Some fishes couldn't adapt so they would die. Some fishes mutated and had grown a shell to prevent water from getting in. Then they mutated into a kidney and that can help them remove water from the fishes body. The salt water that they used to live in have a lot of nutrients but now in the fresh water they don't have a lot of the same nutrients. One of the fish that can breathe oxygen outside the water is called the lungfish.

Hell Creek, which is about 65-67 million years ago. Long after animals have learned to walk on land. Hell Creek represents the Cretaceous period, the Mesozoic era. Hell Creek is located in North and South Dakota and also Montana. Most popular animals found there were dinosaurs. Some are tyrannosaurs, triceratops, and anatotitan. Some are carnivores and some were herbivores. They live in a rainforest like environment.

La Brea Tar Pit is located in California, Los Angelos. The time Period was Quantenary period, Cenozoic era. Animals found there are sabor tooth cats, mammoths, and the dire wolf. Animals lived in grassland where the weather is hot.

Hadar is located in the eastern part of Africa. It is the tertiary period, Cenozoic period. The main fossil they uncover there is Lucy, the first human skeleton, which is about 3 million years old.

Patricia Nolan

Evolution is the study of animals that has surrounding the earth for many centuries. It has also been inside of the Jurassic for millions of years. At the beginning there were these people that were trying to catch the animals but they just kept on making more babies. The plan was to try to keep them from making them because it was becoming very dangerous. I feel that the organism became very simple and complex because in a way they were just it self or should I say one body but then it started breaking up into parts which form a new population of animals and a new environment was formed. Evolution was formed into bacteria to multicultural species that made the kill the entire inside stuff and then let the other stuff die out.

The top fossil of the was the tuzioa and the mollusk and the thing that cause it to diverse was the temperature that was very hot and warm and also it was next to the equator. The era was Paleozoic that came in the period of Cambrian. The many others that had to avoid the Anomalicarus were the sponges. The green river formation was the adaptation for the necha and lepisoteus they could only adapt when the predator wasn't around which was a fish called the kinghta which is 15.7 millons old before it died.

The species that appeared 3 billion years ago only 1 thousand of them are still living. It is the extinction that has the natural cause on the evolution process today. The change that has to be made is the salinity of the sea for sea animals and the climate for outside animals. The boundary for this is that the scale of extinction should be cretaceous and Tertiary They should span the vast spectrums and change the supernova explosions.

To conclude this I would like to say that there were animals on this earth before us but every since humans came many animals has been up under cruelty to animals and hurt over 3 millons animals has died over the many years that we have been here. I feel that animals cane be very harmful but only because they know that humans are harmful and they are trying to protect them selves. I feel that if the only thing that animals was put here for is to kill maybe they shouldn't have never got here everyone would be vegetarians and would be healthy.

Jessica Ramos

Evolution is a change in population in which one species turns into a new species because of the mutation that is in their DNA. In the evolution movie "The Other" it discussed how it all began. All life on earth was once a bacteria. Overtime it evolved into eukaryotes. Then in which later evolved into multi-cellular from eukaryotes. From multicellular the species evolved tissue, and that was the beginning of life.

Cyanobacteria were one of the first bacteria's. That was the kind of bacteria that let oxygen gases into the oceans. After that there was the Eubacteria that kind of bacteria caused diseases and decaying. Because the Eubacteria evolved with no oxygen they had to find another way of producing energy because of that. Then the protist came from the archaebacteria, which were also known as the first eukaryotes. They had nucleus in their DNA. Then the organisms evolved into multi-cellular which meant that the cells were able to divide so they could make a more complex organism. Within the complex organisms tissue started to evolve. Because something new was being evolved tissue was being produced from the mutation. From that there were many types of species that had been changed so that they were able to adapt to the new ecosystem around them.

There was an environment in the marine ecosystem in which they found lots of fossils in the burgess shale that had lived in the marine ecosystem at one point. Opabinia, a creature that was found had things that looked like an elephant. They noticed that it had a long nose just like an elephant it was kind of like a trunk because they found that the nose was used to grab food and carry it on to the mouth just like an elephant. Hallucigenia, another creature that was found that had spikes on it to protect it from being attacked or eaten. Another creature that was found was the Animalocarus. This was an unusual creature. It looked like a shrimp. Its arms were on its head, which was a weird place to have them at. These creatures also had fin-like things on its legs. There were also fishes (Picaya) that were the only kind of species that was not extinct. They were quick to save their population. Because of that it was known as the Cambrian era. Within that era there was about 10,000 species that were new. The Cambrian era had salt water in which fishes and many other organisms weren't able to survive the change from salt water to fresh because then the fresh water would get in them in which they would just BURST. However there was a certain kind of fish that did survive by the name of teraspid. It survived because this fish had a shell, which didn't allow the fresh water to be let in which made his kidneys homeostasis in salt water. And because of this there were also new species that developed in the freshwater and so did many other species on land as well, like dinosaurs.

One of the oldest flying dinosaurs was found in Laioning China. The name of this fossil was the Sinosauropteryx. The dinosaur had grasping hands and was the first non-flying dinosaur. This took place in the Mesozoic era of the cretaceous period. Another fossil that was found there was the Protarchaeopteryx. They were covered in mudstone and ashes from volcanoes. Then Hells creek is found in North and South Dakota, Montana and South Canada. Hells creek was in the Mesozoic era of the cretaceous period. There fossils that were found there, they were the Osteoderm and the Theropod Vertebrae. They were found to be in mudstone. Their environment was very hot. It was like desert weather that ranged from 103 F to 112 F. Then in Solenhofen limestone there was found to be an archaroplemx, which was to be in the Mesozoic era in the Jurassic period. Solenhofen is in Bavaria Germany. In Bavaria Germany there was Archaroplenix to be found, which was the earliest bird fossil to be found. This place had palm trees, corals, lagoons etc. The Green River Formation is in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming. Their oldest bat fossil is the Icaronyeteris Index and the knightia fish. They were to be in mudstone and Pac stone. They were found in Cenozoic era of the Eocene period. Their environment had Cattails, Palm trees, and Pine trees along with a Lake. The Labrea Tar pit is in Los Angeles County. There was mastodons', bison's, saber tooth tigers and mountain lions found to be there. The fossils that were found were the La Brea Stork and the Dire Wolf. This happened in the Pleistocene era of the ice age. The temperature was 90 F. Their summers were very hot. It was a grassy kind of land. They had leaves seeds cones etc. These localities are all very interesting, yet their in different parts of the world containing some of the oldest fossils ever to be found.

As it was shown in the movie, Evolution started out as something so little like bacteria and ended up to be something so big like a dinosaur. The first organisms were simple and over time it changed into something more complex. So because of this we have many species of all kinds. In order for a species to adapt to a new environment they have to go through changes. When the organisms had to move from salt water to fresh water their bodies had to change in order to survive the move. Once they are able to adapt then they can be able to reproduce a whole new species that is able to live in fresh water. And because of the marine ecosystem and the land ecosystem they were both able to intervene with evolution today.

Mina Pan

On Earth, things are starting to evolve even without you noticing it. Evolution is when creatures or living things become more complex as times passes. In addition, the change of population or species over a period of time. Nowadays, things would evolve the same way just like what have shown in the "Other" evolution movie. Many creatures evolve because of their own survival. As the creatures tries to adapt to their new environment, they would evolve into something new to protect themselves from dieing off. As you read on, you will learn about how the species evolves so they could adapt to their new environments.

In the "Other" evolution movie, it starts from 530 million years ago (mya), where there are no living creatures on the land. Then, the f irst group of creatures was discovered in Burgess Shale (marine) by paleontologists, using hammers, chisels, crow bar, small drills to dig up the fossils. One of the animals that were discovered was the Opabinia. The Opabinia has five eyes on its head, a truck like an elephant, and a mouth below its trunk. The truck was used to catch its prey. There has been another creature known as the Hallucigenia. It has developed spikes around its body to protect itself so other predators won't often eat them. Later on, during the Cambrian era, there were 10,000 species developed in the Burgess Shale. A new and more complex specie had developed in the Cambrian era, it's called the Animalocarus. The Animalocarus capture it prey be the use of its arm, then it bite into its prey. This specie has also developed legs and fins on its body do they could swim and walk. Picaya was one of the creatures, which was found in the Cambrian era and were still surviving now. This creature has a notochord, which acts like a large nerve branch, and it cause itself to move faster than other creatures. That's how the Picayas had survived during all these years. In Death Valley, a fish called Teraspid was found living in the fresh water. The Teraspid has developed shell and lungs so it could survive. Finally, scientists believed that the creature called the Ichtyostega was the first creature to walk on land. The Ichtyostega has developed strong and sturdy rib cage to keep its organs in place so it won't get crushed by gravity.

Earth's evolution is very similar to the movie. All the creatures on this planet would develop more useful body parts just so they could adapt to their new environment and protect themselves from other predators. Now, the population is growing larger as time passes and the environment around us is also changing (for example: global warming). Humans are just like the creatures, which were talked about in the "Others" evolution movie, they are all trying to adapt. As they tries to adapt, they will start to evolve into more complex specie. Maybe someday humans would become much more complex and turn out looking like the aliens.

David Ross

Evolution is the mutation of a population over a period of time. Everything evolves with time and isolation. About 530 million years ago there was no life on land. All the life forms were in the sea. At first they were all marine, but over millions of years, there were gradually freshwater fish and then land animals. This is how life on land all began.

In the Cambrian era, also during the Ordovician period, there were many different types of creatures in the sea. Fish weren't around yet. Organisms like hallucigenia and trilobites roamed the ocean floor. Different creatures on the ocean floor had different defense mechanisms to escape or hide from larger predators. Such forms of protection were vital in the fight for survival. Some creatures developed spikes or hard shells. Others developed fins on their legs to enable swimming and walking.

The creatures that went to freshwater had to develop a spine which would reserve the calcium in their bodies. In freshwater the calcium levels would be changing all the time. Sometimes calcium would be plentiful and sometimes it would be scarce. The spinal cord solved those problems by storing calcium in the fish's body.

During the Cambrian era, there was about 10,000 different species of animals in the ocean. One of the most feared was the animalocarus. Scientist had to study this fossil carefully to figure out how this creature terrorized the waters. There has been various finds of fossils with W shaped bites in them. Paleontologists were puzzled in trying to solve this Cambrian mystery. They constructed what they believed to be the creature in a scale model to try to see if the bite marks would match the pineapple ring shaped mouth the fossil had. The paleontologists were successful and another page in evolution was discovered. Facts are always more believable than fiction is. There is proof that evolution exists and occurred billions of years ago. And it's in the rocks we live around to this very day. Fossils of organisms that lived billions and millions of years ago show us that other organisms did roam the earth before humans did. Such fossil dig sites are famous for certain types of fossils. For example the La Brea Tar Pits, located in Los Angels, California is a good place to find mammoths, smilodon and dire wolves. The La Brea Tar Pits has good fossils because the hot tar preserved the fossils well because there were no bacteria or scavengers to eat the fossil. It was active during the Cenozoic period and the Quatermery era.

Another famous dig site for fossils is Burgess Shale. However mammoths aren't found in Burgess Shale. More primitive creatures are found in Burgess Shale, such as trilobites and sponges. They were alive during the Cambrian era. and the Ordovician period.

The fish in the freshwater had predators just like any other animal. Some believe fish developed limbs to wade on the shallow water to escape from predators. Itchyostega was the first fish/dinosaur to walk the earth. It developed limbs and was a very primitive dinosaur in its day.

Over time the dinosaurs died out and mammals ruled the earth. People now control the earth. But from here on now what will evolve from people? We'll all have to find out in about a million of years or so!

Maria Silao

Evolution began years ago with simple organisms. Within time these organisms changed in population and became more complex. In the movie, Evolution, they show an example of how evolution began and its end result. Evolution only happened in four unbelievable days for the people in the movie, but for us it took many years. This movie may be fiction but it does show the process of evolution.

At the start of the movie, a meteor hit earth and when two college professors decided to investigate they discovered something extraordinary. As they examined the rock they noticed that some type of slime was oozing out of it. This slime was then taken back to their laboratory for further examination. To their knowledge this slime contained one-celled organisms and within a few hours evolved into multicelluar organisms. The meteor hitting the earth is like earth 530 million years ago when there were no living creatures alive on land but in oceans. The slime plays as the ocean and the one-celled organisms as the creatures living within it.

With information important as this the professors decided to go back and collect more information about these fascinating creatures. This time they didn't come alone they had brought a couple of their students to help. Which in fact are just like paleontologists because they have people helping dig. They also use tools such as crowbars, hammers, picks, shovels, and drills. The students within the movie also used some of these tools. When they came back to the area they quickly identified that fungi was growing and that there was some sort of fog hovering over the floor. Beneath this blanket of fog were flat worms, which had evolved over night. One of the professors wanted a closer look so he reached over and picked one up, but when the worm came in contact with oxygen it shriveled up and died. This gave them a clue that the blanket of fog was their atmosphere. Just like what they did with the slime, the professors brought a couple of the flat worms back to the lab for more information.

While returning to the lab the professors discovered that the flat worms were reproducing. The fascinating part was that the worms didn't even need to sexually interact with each other, because there was no time. The professors also found out that the atmosphere the worms needed to survive contained methane and hydrogen sulfur. These creatures then started to evolve into greater and bigger things within the second or third day. As for us the Cambrian era was when things started to evolve which created about 10,000 new species.

The growth of these creatures was very swift and by the second or third day they managed to create a bigger environment. This new home contained diverse creatures that evolved only in a couple of hours. As these organisms evolved, mutation intervened and created even more complex species. The two professors believed that the main cause of this mutation was fire. The fire that was supposed to eliminate and cause destruction but instead brought complications. One complication was that it created dinosaur like animals and species I can't even begin to describe. Now the second complication can't even compare to the first problem. In the movie when the creatures mutated it's kind of like when the first fishes on earth went from salt water to fresh water. The teraspid fish survived in fresh water because it had a shell for protection and a kidney unlike saltwater fishes. These freshwater fishes evolved in order to live in their new environment just like the organisms in the movie.

By the fourth day a new breed evolved, which stunned the professors and scientists in the movie. This new breed was an ape like animal that showed intelligence. This ape like animal was actually able to escape captivity from the researchers. Not only did it show intelligence, but it also adapted to its new environment. Which meant it was able to breathe oxygen and survive with no signs of difficulty. The ape like animal can also play as the Ichtyostega, which was the first animal to ever walk on land because of its advanced skeletal system. The Ichtyostega is kind of like the ape like animal in the movie, because it evolved from a sea creature into a land creature. It had a skeletal system, which included ribs to support its organs and keeping it from getting crushed. Just like the apes it evolved in order to adapt to our environment with no complications.

As you see, evolution began four days ago with one-celled organisms for these creatures and by the fourth day these organisms changed in population and became more complex. These creatures were very unique because of their rapid changes and adaptation to our environment: the same environment that we had to adjust to. With us humans it took 4.6 billion years to evolve into the civilized and intelligent creatures that we are. Which also makes us unique because of how we think and communicate amongst one another. We've evolved through generation to generation and it didn't matter how fast or slow it took.

Sam Tang

Evolution is a change in a population or species over a period of time. Evolution happens all over the world. The process of evolution makes organisms more complex so they could adapt to their environment and make their lives better for the future. Earth started with only plants and then it became more complex and became to be animals, humans, and more as thing moved their lives to the land and away from the water.

530 million years ago there were no living creatures or plants on Earth. During the Cambrian era, approximately 10,000 species were developed. From simple organisms came more complex organisms. One of the first organisms was called Opabinia. This creature had a trunk like the elephant's and with it, it used the trunk to grasp food and carry it to it mouth. Also another creature was the Hallucigenia, this creature had a spikes all over it's body, a shrimp like head, and a fishy body for a faster more efficient moving. There was another creature called the Animalocarus this creature had large arm-like appendages that captured its prey and bring it towards it's circular mouth which consumed it. Also this creature had developed legs to help it to walk on both land and to swim on water. But the only creature to have lived during the Cambrian era and still living among us in the oceans today is the Picaya, which survived mainly because of it's notochord (a common trait for all chordates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and us, humans) which was a spinal cord for the Picayas.

As time changes, so did many of the creatures becoming more and more advanced so it can be able to survive in its habitat. Many fishes from the saltwater were not able to live in fresh water because the water and the fish were not equal, in the ways of osmosis. If a saltwater fish went to fresh water they would blow up because the salt and molecules inside and outside were not equal. The only way for the fish to survive was to develop a powerful enough kidney to pump out water, when the water gets into the fish from the gills. Also the fish had to have a waterproof shell, to prevent water from entering through the body. And one fish actually developed these skills; the fish was called the Teraspid fish. The backbone developed for fishes when they moved to fresh water and it increased the fishes' speed and power. It worked because the backbone gave the muscles something hard to pull against. The Green River Formation is a river back in the Cenozoic Era, and Tertiary Period about 50.7 million years ago. The Knightia fish use to live there but they died quickly. Many scientists think that poisonous volcanic gases, temperature fluctuations, food supply shortages, and algal blooms may have killed these fishes because these are some of the conditions where modern day fishes die. So for some fishes to adapt to their environments, they may develop legs, like a salamander and the legs would help the salamander to walk on shallow water.

During the time of the dinosaurs, there were many different habitats in which the dinosaurs and prehistoric animals lived and some place in which they did not live. And they came to live on land because they had developed the rib cage so the Earth's gravity wouldn't crush the animals' organs. One place where the dinosaurs and the animals did not lived at, was a place where once they arrived at, they wouldn't be able to leave. That place would be called the La Brea Tar pits. The La Brea Tar pits where in the Quatenary Period, in the Cenozoic Era, about 40,000 years ago. The tar pits were like a trap for dinosaurs. Prehistoric animals would go to the tar pits in hopes for a drink of water or some prey for other animals that were already drinking water. But as soon as they get into the tar pits, they wouldn't be able to leave. The animals would sink slowly down into the tar.

Evolution has happened in the world, and it has made us to be what we are today. We know this because of paleontologists. Paleontology is the study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms. Paleontologists found fossils by using crowbars, hammers, chisels, magnifying glasses, small drills, shovels, and picks. Without evolution we might not have all the body parts that we have to help us do the things that we need to do, with our hands, legs, and to eat with our teeth.

Bich Ha Tran

The "Other" Evolution movie explained clearly how one species became more complex toward its structure and adaptability. Paleontologists contribute to explore a great natural treasure that has been buried millions years ago. Everything began with ancient bacteria, a first cell of the Earth in marine ecosystem. The first cells didn't have any internal parts to do special functions. For a billion years later, the protist, first eukaryotes existed. They had DNA within nucleus and complex internal membrane. Then, the first fossils of multicellular organisms were found in 630 million years old rock. It marked a period of evolution. The multicelluar organisms have more special trait that we can found while look at them. The organisms became more abundant and innumerable. They began to spread life on land with special tissues that can help them adapt to the earth's conditions. It is amazing, from a bacteria cell without any special part become very complex organism that we can found today and history.

Relate to the movie, Paleontologists depended on the fossils that they found and depicted a whole marine environment in Burgess shale in the Cambrian period. Paleontologists found out a creature named Opabinia, a multicellular organism. It had a long trunk, which looked like an elephant's trunk. It surprised everyone with its five eyes. The trunk used to grab five eyes and capture the preys. The five eyes used to look for the way and recognized its enemies. There was other predator named Animalocarus. It was to feet long. It captured prey by grabbing them with arms and chomped its prey. It had fins outside its legs in order to swim and walk. Many organisms in the same marine environment became Opabinia and Animalocarous' preys. The paleontologist also found Hallucigenia and Picaya. They could avoid from Opabinia and Animalocarus because Hallucigenia had covered by spikes and Picaya had notocord which helped Picaya to have faster respond. With different and special traits that could protect themselves from the enemies, the numbers of multicellular organisms were increased. About 10000 new species existed during the Cambrian era.

Organism spread life through the fresh water environment such as in the Green River in the Eocene period and Cenozoic Era (49.7-50.7 mya). It was warm and had subtropical environment It's temperature range from 15 to 20 C. It was an evolutionary period. In fresh water, the amount of salt was low down. Many organisms were dead because they absorbed too much water into cell and the cell burst. The process of osmosis can answer this reality. To prevent water enter too much into cell, a Teraspid fish had its shell and kidneys homeostasis of salts in order to live in fresh water. The organism kept developing itself in fresh water. The fishes began to have the backbone. First, those could store calcium from the bones such as the Knight fish. Second, they can move faster around by pushing the plants. Their fossils were found from mudstones.

Evolution helped organisms to adapt to the earth's condition and they began to live on land. Begin with Eusthhenopteron, it lived in dirty lake where often didn't have enough oxygen to survive. They developed with lungs in order to breathe oxygen from the earth when oxygen in the water was low or none. Some organism such as the ancient salamanders lived in shallow water to get away from predators, they developed with limbs to crawl around. After that, Ichtyostega walked on the land completely. It had ribs to support organs.

Related to Liaoning area in Cretacious period/Mesozoic era (120 mya), the first oldest flying and non-flying dinosaurs were found such as Sinosauropteryx and Protarchaeopteryx. Sinosauropteryx's fingers supported the flight feathers. Protarchaeopteryx had bone on arm link together with wrist. They both had the same tail skull. They both had big body shapes that helped them to overpower others. They also became major mass extinction of the world. Another area represented the early life on land was Solnhosen Limestone in Jurassic period 155 million years ago. It had a warm and wet climate. Archaroplenix, Lagoon, Cymnosperm were found. Trees began to develop there.

The next area was Hell Greek in Cretacious period/Mesozoic era. It had a hot climate like desert with the temperature from 103 to 112C. Theropod, Osteoderm, and pine tree were found there. The younger period, Pleistocene period was about 2.5 million years ago, there were many different kind of mammals, birds existed in Rancho La Brea. The paleontologists found many fossils from asphalt in La Brea Tar Pit, which locate in Los Angeles' Hancock Park. This area covered by tar and had oil seeps. When the oil oozed upward, it formed pools. Many animals were stuck into the pools when they seek for water. There were large herbivores such as horses, mastodons, bison, and camels. Many carnivores attracted by these herbivores such as saber tooth cats, the giant California jaguar, and dire wolves. There were birds such as vulture and California stork. In order to survive in La Brea Tar Pit, animals need to have stronger characteristics toward the other. The vultures have 3.6 feet wingspan so that they can fly and support the bodies. That helped them to avoid from Saber tooth cat and dire wolves. California stork has soft and thin bone that can decrease its weigh so that they also can fly. Most herbivore animals have large bodies shape so that they can fight against carnivores to escape. Dire wolves have large teeth to bite their preys. Saber tooth cat have to power front legs and short tail in order to capture prey easier. Saber tooth cat also had canines to bite their preys. Those are several periods present the life on land.

Evolution contributes to create an abundant world like today. Organisms keep developing themselves and become more complex and diversion. In the movie, the original organisms changed their genetics makeup so that their offspring were able to adapt to the environment and more animals could exist. From only life in salt water, the organism spread through out everywhere. We also can take advantage on this to learn more about evolution history, which relates to ourselves. In the sciential aspect, humankind was begun from the monkey. Through time and time, the monkey change its genetics make up and became human. It was exactly evolution. Evolution helps us to explain many questions in life.  

Helen Tran

Evolution, the ability for organisms to adapt to the environment, in another word; it is the change of organisms over time period. Like in the movie, Evolution, it gives us a good example of how organism evolves with time period. Organisms, who was a one-cell organisms evolves into a mufti-cell organisms. The organisms later grows into creatures, the creatures in the movie was not able to adapt quickly to the human environment because they came from a completely different environment. For that it takes time for the animal to mutate into an intellectual creatures living on earth.

Organisms begin their life as very simple organic creatures, as time goes on though it becomes more complex and progressing into a better organisms. All creatures were created through the time line, which all organisms lived in salt water, then fresh water, moving onto land. Not everything starts off being use to their surrounding, it takes period of times for things to evolves from little bacteria to eukaryotics that has nucleus and organelles. Then it becomes a multicellular cell and soon enough it turns into creatures with tissues that are able to do more things than their ancestors can.

All organisms go through the time period of evolution, having the abilities in evolving into a new type of creatures so it can live in its new environment and won't die like the first stage because it didn't adapt to the atmosphere. About 530 million years ago, there weren't any organisms living on land because they weren't able to adapt to the land condition yet. The reason is because the organism is going through the process of mutation. Mutation is when the organism makes a sudden change in its genetic characteristics. Opabinia was one of the creatures that were found in the burgess shale by Dr. Whittington. It uses it trunks to grab objects, like the elephant does but it lives in the water, also Opabinia has five eyes on top of its "head" so it'll have a better vision underwater. Traits that protect Hallucigenia are the spikes it has. Animalocarus is another creature underwater that captures its food with its arms and chomp on it. Fins on the side of Animalocarus' legs helps it to swim and walk. The genetic makes little changes, changes that in result have an organism that's able to do more than the last stage of organism. Everything happens at certain period during the creatures' evolution, developing.

During the Cambrian era, there were about 10,00 species were developed. Picaya, the only creature that can still be found today in our oceans since the Cambrian era has a Notocard that allows it to move quicker and being more flexible. In Death Valley paleontologists found fossils of fish that able to live in freshwater but weren't able to find salt-water fishes in freshwater because of Osmosis. It's when the water moves into the cells f the fish and the cell expands and the fish dies. A trait that passed on to the Teraspid fish to survive in fresh water is because of its shell that prevents it from having water to go in. Finally, Ichtyostega, whose trait evolved giving it ability to finally walk on land, which was the ribs to support its heart, lungs, stomach, and other organs.

Similar to the things that happened on earth, everything is evolving to be better and have more intelligence. Looking at the different location on earth there is several different formations that showed evolution occurring. Like Hell Creek formation, which is located in Montana and Dakota during the Mesozoic Era about 68 million years ago and which was when the dinosaurs extinct. Like the Tyrannosaurus rex and triceratops who's fossils was found there including many others. Green river formation, located in Colorado, and was formed during the Eocene period about 40 to 60 million years ago. You can find plenty of plants fossils there, like the palm, cattail, and Plantanus leaf. Liaoning, can be found in North East China and also formed. during the Mesozoic Era. It's a pretty hot and humid place has long rivers and etc, and also animal like Confuciusornis, a bird that wasn't able to fly and is about 120-150 yrs old. Another formation is La Brea Tar Pits, which is located in Los Angeles, California, formed during the Quaternary period, about 40,000 yrs old. It also had over 660 species found there, and one of them was the mammoth. La Brea Tar Pits also had camels, invertebrates, beetles, flies, and lions, also plants like arroyo trees, and coast like oak. Last but not least, the Mazon Creek formation, located Northeastern, Illinois, formed during the Paleozoic Era about 300 million years ago. You can also find Tullimonster fossils there, it was soft, and had not internal skeleton. Mazon Creek was located near the equator, in addition, it was dry mixed with swampy lowlands and had jellyfishes, and worms. So basically, each one of the formations during different time had caused things to either extinct forming another ones, evolving into different things throughout time period.

Overall, the organism makes up its population by going through the process of mitosis; reproducing itself, change of population. Even though the organism does not change, its new generation does, to be able to fit into their new environment. As we can see, evolution is as simple as a change in population that causes the organisms' next generation to be better and able to fitted into the environment that the original ones weren't able to do. So, as you look closer, evolution happens throughout time period causing everything to be different because everything is adapting to its new atmosphere unlike before. Everything are able to be living in the environment its in and able to continue and slowly evolve so the new generation can be more better or be more intelligent.

Diana Uriarte

Evolution is the change of living organisms overtime, which is usuallymore complex than the previous one. It creates different species and from each newer species there are ones that adapt well and others that aren't able to do so. Evolution happens because of the mutation of the specie's DNA over time, all the living organisms started out as bacteria. From there they became eukaryotes and then into multicellular organisms and from there they start to develop tissue. The first living things started out as creatures that survived in water only. Once mutation occurred, different species were able to adapt to live on land. That means that the first lining things go way back, since before the dinosaurs.

The first living organism, bacteria, that appeared was called cyanobacteria, they were able to produce oxygen into the oceans. A different group would be the archaebacteria, which is related to the eubacteria. Neither of them was photosynthetic, because they evolved when there was no air or oxygen in the atmosphere, like the cyanobacteria so they caused disease and decay as a form of energy. The first living thing with a nucleus in the DNA was the protist. After that first started to evolve the multicellular organisms, from there came the more complex species like the ones that we have today. There was a variety of different species because the circumstances were different, some species evolved in such an effective way that there are still some species from along time ago that you will see today.

According to paleontologists there were no living creatures on land, only in the water. There were many fossils found of creatures that survived In the water those many years ago, to get to those fossils they had to use things like hammers, shovels, magnifying glasses, picks crowbars and other tools as well. They found many different species like Halludgenia, Aminalocarus, which was a hard fossil to put together because at first only bits of incomplete pieces of it were found. When it was first found it was called odd shrimp, because the only pieces that they had of it looked like the tail of a shrimp, but not completely like a average looking shrimp. In the Cambrian era there was about 10,000 new species that evolved and that was the biggest one found, once all the pieces were put together. The creatures at that time lived in salt water, some species evolved and were able to adapt to fresh water by controlling the amount of water that the salt water caused to enter their cells so that they wouldn't burst because of cells over flooded with water. Some species already had gills and developed mutated lungs in replace for their swim bladder. That allowed them to pass by shallow waters and still be able to survive.

There were all kinds of different species and each species evolved when there was a condition that the ones living at the time weren't able to survive. Some adaptations are so opportune that some species from way back are still living today. Though it may seem weird that everything first started out as bacteria, that's the way it was and from that beginning is how we got so much diversity and complex structures. Each species is different and has their own defenses, until now, everything living at this time has evolved in a way that allows them to survive. That is, at least for now.

Michael Vo

The beginning of time, single celled organism, bacteria, was brought into life. Single cell organism started to reproduce from fission and over millions of years, the environment started to change and the single cell organism had to become more complex to be able to survive in the environment through photosynthesis. Then after time, which is a lot of time, the single cell organism, the bacteria, became eukaryotes organism and grew its complexity to survive through evolving. Then the eukaryotes became more diverse as it became mufti-cell organism became fungi, which caused the organisms to grew into different types of life forms because the environment. As fungi grew into different things, animal diversity began to emerge. Each animal grew to its own form of life. Then predators and prey started to become more advance because each animal had to evolve to survive. As predators reign supreme their body didn't adapt as the environment changes because predators at the time didn't need to evolve to survive and eventually died out. And as the vertebras had the mobility to have more muscles and quick reactions it became the most smartest and powerful animal alive.

During that time everything eventually died out, but the vertebras. With their powerful features they grew into jawless fishes that lived in salt water, and then conquering the fresh water by evolving a strong backbone to feed calcium from and evolving a bladder to help pump out fresh water in the body, the jawless fish also became jawed fishes. As the water type animals evolve the land evolved with fungi. As land slowly grew, the vertebras under the water grew into arthropods, and now have the ability to breath air (oxygen).

As oxygen usages started to grow because of predators didn't evolve into lungs breath air, the prey started to find other places to hide and as preys began to use air, they found out a way to enter the surface of the planet. Using only what they evolve to, the animals began to adapt to the surface life. As they did, they evolved into amphibians and dominated the land.

As amphibians rule, mammals started to evolve also. Mammals were small but had hair to keep them warm instead of using sunlight. Then when the environment changed and the world got colder the reptile (amphibians) couldn't retain their heat because their heat source was gone, while the mammals were at full force because they had warmth from their hair. After awhile mammals grew larger and larger the amphibians grew smaller. Around the time of mammals ruling the planet, hominids started to grow and evolve and became many species and then became Homo sapiens, which is us right now.

Kenny Wong

Evolution is mutation of a population over a period of time, mostly both genetically and physically. In the past, Earth's evolution took about 3.6 billions years. At that time many life form had lived there. Each of them had gone through a lot to survive until today. In order to survive, they have to learn to adapt the environment. The good part is when they adapt to their environment they eventually reproduce offspring with that mutation. They have to keep adapting the new environments because they have to keep on moving and when they do, they have to adapt environments, then eventually mutation happen. Organisms would always keep on evolving, but it is not necessary for them to get better than what they were, but because of that they have mutations that made them more complex and made their looks changed.

The first life form on Earth was bacteria. They were single cell organisms. At that time, they don't even have organelles; all they can do was move around. Then two kinds of bacteria evolve into Protists which were known as the second life form on earth; the eukaryotes. Then the Protists started evolving, they evolved in to mufti cellular, and it became more complex and bigger. Then the mufticellular organisms started evolving in to a even more complex organism, the fungi. Fungi were found in the White Sea. It was like some type of plants that live under water. Then later the fungi evolved in to the first really classify as animals and was from a place call Burgess Shale.

The Burgess Shale is during the Ordovician period, the Cambrian era. It was located in an area call the burgess pass that is at the British Columbia's Yoho National Park. The ecosystem there was an ocean so because of that, paleontologists nowadays had found a lot of marine animal fossils there. One of the ancient organisms that extinct today is call the Opabinia. It has a trunk above its mouth, and they had five eyes. And those five eyes were very important to that organism, because with their five eyes, they can see predators faster than others, which mean they can escape faster. And another organism was Hallucigenia. Their mutation was that they had spikes on their back, which safe them from getting eaten. Then is the wellknown predator, Animalocarus; it was the predator because fins and appendages, and together they enables the Animalocarus to walk and swim at the same time. It was so strong and powerful, all other organisms were fear of it. But because of a natural disaster in the ocean, most of the animal extinct and was cover but one of them survived, and it was the Picayas.

One of the reason it survive because it had a notocord. Because of the mutation enables them to have a stronger nervous system so they can be more paranoid to their environment. Paleontologists believe that they evolve into chordates, which was more in the tertiary period. The Picayas move to Death Valley later on. But the problem was that before the Picayas lived in salt water, and now they can't adapt the fresh water. Some fishes that can't adapt would blow up and pop because water would keep on moving into their body. And some fishes mutated and have grown a shell to prevent water from getting in. But the only problem was that their gills weren't protected. Then the fish mutated and grown kidneys to help them release water. Then the fishes mutated and grown a real spinal cord lead to a lot of advantages the fishes would have. Because the salt water they used to live in have a lot of nutrients but now in the fresh water they don't have a stable rate of nutrients, having bones help them stored nutrients and it allowed the fished to swim faster and with more force.

And because the mutation happened, more and more fishes were enabling to live in fresh water, because of that more and more fish came, which lead to more predators. Because of that the fishes wanted to escape from the predators, they started evolving again. They started to developed lungs that can let them breath in the air. Once organisms had learned how to breathe oxygen, the next challenge they would have to face was walking on land. The Salamanders were the first one that had developed limbs, which made it enable to crawl on land. Then the Ichtyostega learned to walk on land, because it had a mutation of rib cage. Because there is gravity on land, and if they walked, gravity would pull them down and their organs would be crushed. But now that they had a rib cage, it could prevent them from crushing their organs, so they can walk on land.

When they started walking on land, there were even a larger variety of animals that evolve. Such as Hell Creek, which was about 65-67 million years ago. Long after animals started to walk on land. Hell Creek represent the Cretaceous period, the Mesozoic era. It was located between the North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Mutated animals found there were dinosaurs. They were tyrannosaurs, triceratops and anatotitan. Some dinosaurs were carnivores and only eat plants. They were large animals with strong teeth. The place they lived in was a rain forest, which provides the dinosaurs a hot environment. La Brea Tar Pit was located in California, which is downtown of Los Angeles today. The time period they are in was the Quaternary period, Cenozoic era. Animals found there were saber tooth cats, mammoths, and the dire wolf. At that time animals lived in grassland, and the weather is hot. Then there is Hadar, which was located in the Eastern part of Africa. It was the Tertiary period, Cenozoic era. The main fossil they uncover there was Lucy; the first human. Lucy was about 3 million years old.

This whole crazy madness started with a little organism call bacteria. It change and change so much, it had eventually evolved to us. Even thou it was a little messed up in the middle, some of the organisms had extinct. And luckily some of them had made it through, if they didn't make it, I would wonder what can happen to us????

Peter Wong

Evolution occur when one species change from one form to another that has to do with its surrounding. It can happen to anyone or anything the point of evolution is trying to stay alive without dying out from the environmental changes. To stay alive you have adapt to the surrounding and to do that you have to modify forms so is can adapt to the changes. If the animals don't evolve or change they will eventually die out because they are not use to being in a diverse environment. Some say that human evolve from apes and became better as the year pass. The apes once walk with there knuckles and their back bent vertical. Many years went by we humans evolve from what we had started out. In the movie Evolution a space rock came down and hit the earth's surface and began evolving.

About 530 million years ago there was no living creatures alive on land, but there was living creatures living in the sea. In the Cambrian era approximately 10,000 new species was developed. The Opabinia was discovered by Dr. Whittington. The creatures use his trunk to grabs, and it have five eyes on top of its head. The Hallucigena's traits of protection is the spikes on his back to keep his enemy away and from being eaten. Animalocarus captures its food by using his arm then by bring it in his mouth it then chumps it down. The fins on the side help it to walk on the land and swim in the water. The creature that is still wit us today living in the oceans in the Picaya, It was here ever since the Cambrian era. The special this creatures have is the notochord, that is the reason that it gets to live as long as it did. The paleontologist use many tools to find all those fossils some of the items were crowbars, hammers, picks, chisel, magnifying glass and drill.

When life forms stay in one place for years and didn't die out it will begin to advance and becomes better then before when it once started life here. Some of the fish was not able to survive in the salt water because of osmosis, it die out because the water and the salt is not balance or equal. If a saltwater fish enter to a freshwater the saltwater fish will explode. The way they can move from saltwater to freshwater is either having a shell that cover their body, so that no water can enter their body. The other way is they develop kidneys to help them. The backbone is for using more force and help them move faster.

There is always a place for evolution like Hell Creek which is located in Montana and Dakota during the Mesozoic Era about 68 million years ago it have layers of rock and a semi tropical environment. This was the time of dinosaurs, some of the bones found were the Tyrannosaurus Rex and triceratops. The time of the Green river happen in Eocene period about 40 to 60 million years ago. The fossil you might find there is the palm, cattail, and Plantanus leafs. The Liaoning Era was found in North East China and the period was Mesozoic about 120-150 years old. Animals like Protarchacop teryx and Confuciusornis, most of the birds wasn't able to fly. The location of La Brea Tar Pits was in Los Angeles, California. There was over 660 species found one of the most well known was the mammoth. Brea Tar Pits was also located in Los Angeles with camels, invertebrates, beetles, flies, and lions and the plant some what like the arroyo tree. It was 40,000 years old. The Mazon Creek is found in Northeastern Illinois. Is about 300 million years old in the period of Paleozoic Era.

Now we see that all evolution is all about staying alive and live in different places so we can reproduce and keep the number of species up by number so we won't die out. Also to keep the next generation going and staying in the best of shape that nature throw at them. Evolution can happen anywhere but it take times for it to adapt to the right parts for the right place. Evolution can happen faster then you think it can or as slow as possible. Like the humans, is taking more then century and yet we still evolve or change because of the environment. We stay the same when the environment or the atmosphere stays the same. All those places that you find fossil represent that there use to be life there before it died out. The fossil might look different because it had change during the time periods. That's how scientist is able to find out that they had evolve from one form to another to stay alive. The fossil also shows that what kind of creatures had been living there and what kind of environment they had. The fossil prove that there was evolution that had happen and will happen again soon then people though. Fossil that had been found, give people a great idea how life was like before there was humans around.

Angel Xie

Evolution is change in genetic make up of a population or species over time. When the evolution gets change, the amount of the organism will be change by the evolution. Almost every organism is start from one cell, and then it begins to make another cells, and form another organism as the time goes. Evolution needs many years to evolved, just like how much time does the ape evolve to humans takes, it needs million or billion years.

On the movie, there has a rock came from outside of the earth. They saw the single cellular in that rock, and then change to multicellular cells. So they go back to the cave to find more information about it. They saw there has lots of mushroom and many flatworms inside the cave. They took two flatworms go back and do the research for it, when they go back, they saw that two flatworms turns to four worms then four worms to eight worms. That's what we said of the "multicellular". Then it makes lots of the flatworms in that room. But the worms will be died by after the worms connect with the earth's environment that is cause by the earth evolution.

Evolution changes the genetics make up over time, so that one species could become too more complex toward. Paleontologists found many natural treasures that were buried million years ago. About 530 million years ago, there was no life on the land, only lived in Marine Ecosystem. During the Cambrian era, 10,000 new ;species develop. After a billion years, the protist first eukaryotes existed. The first fossils of multicellular organisms were found in 630 million years old rock, which called evolution. Paleontologists found out a creature he named Opabinia. The trunk used to grab 5 eyes and capture the preys. The eyes in for look things, another predator is call Animalocarus, it captured its food with grab with arms and chomp. Their fins on their side are to use for swim and walk.

Organism spread life to fresh water in the Green River. It was in an evolutionary period. The salt in the fresh water was low. Many organisms were dead, because there was too much water going into the cell, so the cell burst. Teraspid fish has cell and kidneys homeostasis of cell, so it can protect them living in fresh water. Later on the organisms develop in fresh water. The fish starting to have backbones, the backbone is to help the fish move faster.

An organism was starting to adapt to the earth's condition, and began to live on the land. Eusthhenopteron was the first to live on the land, but it doesn't survive, because of dirty legs and not enough oxygen. Another organisms such as salamanders live in shallow water because to get away of predators. Later on the years Ichtyostega can walk on the land, it had ribs to support organs. In the period of cretaceous and Mesozoic era was the first oldest to fly. Non- flying such as dinosaurs was found in Sinosauropteryx and Protarchaeopteryx. Sinosaurpteryx's fingers supported the flight feathers. And Protarchaeopteryx had bone, which arm fink together, both of them have same tail and skull, and body shape.

The animal begin to live on the land, first they want to prevent from seeing their enemies: Second they breath oxygen when water in dirty and low oxygen. 2.5 million years ago in Pleistocene period, there were many different animals existed in Rancho La Brea, like birds and mammals.

The paleontologists found many fossils on La Brea Pit. It was in LA's Hancock Park. La Brea Pit is cover with oil seeps. A lot of animals like horses, mastodons, bison, camels stick inside the tar. Carnivores were also attracted by herbivores such as Saber tooth cats and wolves. There were also birds like vulture live in La Brea Pit.

Basically evolution affluent the word that we live in today, 1 think it was influence, because of different lands, nature, animals, condition, and weathers. Evolution help animals develop many functions, like back bones or ribs. Also the fossils are cause by the evolution too. Because it is traces of an organism that lived long ago, so it takes million or billion years to form to it. So almost every fossils is found in under the ground. And we can see how do the same kinds of animal are looks like in million years before. Or what animal that evolved to laterday animal, their body parts are change a lot with before. Over all I learned evolution help things develop in the world.

Calvin Yao

Evolution is a development when organisms of a population start to change into another form and developing from simple to more complex forms. Within our nature, almost all kinds of life forms are evolved from a simple form, and slowly, they start to develop and change into more complex organisms. Every living thing start off with only one cell, and with time passing by, the single cell starts to divide up into more and more cells, which eventually forms into another form of organism. Different groups of organisms evolve at different time periods and areas, also that different creatures has different features due to the environment they lived in and how they were evolved from their ancestors. In real life, population of organisms evolves extremely slowly, it usually takes more than millions of years in order for them to evolve into different specie, and so in order for those organisms to develop into organisms with smart intelligence, the process will take a very long period of time.

During the very beginning part of evolution, every organism starts with a single cell. Those were eukaryotic cells evolved from bacteria, and later on the cell will divide up and the organism will become multicellular. As the steps and changes in evolution starting to become more complex, multicelluar organisms will then become tissues and kept on its process of evolution as time passes by.

From the movie about evolution, it talked mainly about how different kinds of organisms evolves during the Mya era, which was around 530 million years ago. During that time, there were no living creatures that lived on land, they all lived in the seas. Different kinds of organisms lived in this marine environment and one of the typical creatures during that time in that area is Animalocarus, it's a fish-like creature that captures food with arms and then chomp the food in its hole-like mouth with very sharp teeth. Also a special feature about Animalocarus is that the fins on the side of its legs allows them to swim and walk.

Later on in the Cambrian era, more creatures have evolved and more kinds of organisms existed. Some of these organisms were even able to live in fresh water due to their evolution and their new special features. Some typical ones during that time include Opabinia, Hallucigenia, Picaya, Salamanders, and Ichtyostega. During the Cambrian era, about 10,000 new species have developed, for instance, Hallucigenia, it has spikes on its body as a kind of natural protection, Opabinia, has trunk to grab and eat food, and it has 5 eyes on its head. Picaya, the only creature still found today in our oceans since the Cambrian era, has neither shells nor spines, but has notocord that helped them escaped from extinction. Another kind of creature is the Teraspid fish, it has kidney and protective shell which prevents water going in and that's why they were able to survive both in fresh water and salty water.

Within the same period of time, more creatures have evolved and some of them now were able to live on land. The salamanders for example, they have an evolutionary advantage that gives them the ability to crawl in shallow waters. That is an early sign of evolution that creatures were slowly beginning to be able to walk on land. Ichtyostega, it has ribs to support its heart, lungs, stomach and other organs, which its evolution finally allowed them to walk on land.

Generally, evolution of organisms occurred in these five divided regions: Liaoning, Hell Creek, Green River, Mazon Creek, and La Brea Tar Pits. Each region has different landscapes, environment, and weather, causing organisms to evolve differently in each region. Liaoning, the region of the oldest era, has a dry and hot area that had over 150 million years of age. It has volcanoes and it's from the Mesozoic era, and now Liaoning is located in the northeast of China. Hell Creek, from the Jurassic era, has rain forests, abandoned rivers, and mild weather in that area. Hell Creek, is the second oldest locality with an age of over 68 million years old and it's known as today's Montana. Green River, a 40-60 million years old region with a temperature of 15-20C. It's from the Eocene period and Green River is known as today's Colorado, Wyoming. The next one is Mazon Creek, it's from the Paleozoic Era and carboniferous period, it has swampy environment and has a kind of typical animal called Tullimonsters. The last one is La Brea Tar Pits, it's located in today's Los Angeles, it is the youngest locality and it has an age of more than 40 thousand years old. This region has over 60000 species of organisms and some typical animals are native horses, camels, lions and dense plants. La Brea Tar Pits was from the Quantenary Era, it has a high temperature of 32C and more than a thousand fossils have been found there nowadays.

Evolution meant a lot to us and is a very important process. Without evolution, we probably would not even be existing on Earth and not having our individual intelligence or any other unique characteristics. It's important for us to learn about evolution because we should all know about how we turned out to be who we are, and evolution is part of the reason why we exists in this world. By gaining more knowledge about the process of evolution, we will be able to figure out how and why we existed on Earth. We also will know about the past and what roughly had happened during the process of evolution. By knowing that, we can see the steps of how the first original group of population had evolved into living organisms like us now and what had caused them to change. So it's beneficial for us to study about evolution and our past, simply because we can gain more knowledge and learn more things from our surroundings.

Peter Yee

Evolution is what life has always been about, from generations to generations, people have been going through a transformation as if they were mutating. Long time ago people weren't as smart as they are now. Today people in our times have better knowledge. Evolution to me is when a species change over the course of time. Like from a guerilla to a human. Evolution is change in the genetic makeup of a population or species over time. I think that when we were young, we were very weak, but as we aged our strength got stronger, and we even gotten better at what we did when we were young. As time went by our intelligence grew because as our body matures, we use our five senses which are see, hear, taste, touch and smell to help us open our mind just like how evolution is like. Millions of years ago, organisms thrived in the sea. There was no living creature on land. As time was passing, organisms in the sea started going to fresh water estuaries, from their organisms adapted to their habitat, then the organisms started to get to a different level. Then the organisms went to land, and from there evolution is still present.

In the movie Evolution, it was about how organisms first started out. Along time ago there was no living creature, no grass, but sand and rocks. There was water, water led to the forming of bacteria. Bacteria, was the first to form. Then came Eukaryotes, then multicelluar tissue. Paleontologist used many types of tools to find fossils. They used tools such as crowbars, shovels, hammers, chisels, magnifying glass, drills, and picks to study fossils. In the movie there was a creature that was called the Opabinia. The Opabinia had a trunk, which believed to be used for carrying food to its mouth. Another creature was the Hallucigenia, which had spikes to protect its body from predators that tried to hunt it. This was during the Cambrian era where 10,000 different species developed. There was a very strange fossil that was discovered by paleontologist. It was the Animalocarus. At first paleontologist thought how could a creature have no head, then later discovered that it was the arms of a creature that was broken off. The, long claws on the Animalocarus was believed to be used for grabbing its food and chomping it down with its mouth. There was a creature called the Picaya. The Picaya didn't have any type of protection but thankful for its notocord, the Picaya would react at first site of enemies. The notocord would act as a reflex. The notocord is consisted of a bunch of nerves, just like our spinal cords. All these creatures lived in water, but later evolved from water to land creatures.

Fish that live in salt water are very vulnerable if put in fresh water.Fish that has adapted to salt water needs salt in order to survive, but when they are place in freshwater their guts will expand, and then pop. Think of yourself, as you are diving underwater, and suddenly your body pops, that would hurt. There was a fish called the Teraspid fish that adapted to surviving in, freshwater because it had a protective shell, and a weak gill. But luckily for the fish it had a strong kidney to pump out the water. Backbones started to form as time went by for some creatures. The backbone was to keep the creatures health in good shape. The bones acted as calcium, which kept the bones healthy, and support of the body since it was so heavy for some creatures. Later on fins evolved to limbs. Its, because as water levels, decrease creatures needed limbs in order to survive. So as time flew by limbs formed. The limbs helped the fish crawl in shallow water, so it can escape from its predator. There was a creature called the Ichtyostega, which was believed to be the first living creature with ribs. The Ichtyostega was very heavy, and to walk on land it needed ribs to support its body, and protect its organs.

Dinosaurs use to roam this earth millions of years ago, but after dinosaurs died, a new life began on Earth. Localities are places on the earth where fossils are found. Some of the localities on earth are Liaoning, Solenhofen Limestone, Hell Creep Green River Formation, and La Brea Tar Pit. The Liaoning is located in China and fossils like the Sinosauropteryx, Protachaepteryx are found there. The predators there were believed to have been meat eaters since their wrist could twist 190 degrees. These dinosaurs lived in large colonies, and they could fly. The period in which the Liaoning happened was during the Cretaceous period in the Mesozoic era. Rock forms found in this location were mudstones and ash. The Solenhofen Limestone was located in Bavaria, Germany about 155 million years ago. Lagoons, plants, and trees were also found there. Early birds such as the Archaroplenix, was discovered there. This was the Jurassic Period during the Mesozoic era. The types of rocks found there were mudstones. Hell Creek, one of the greatest formations in the Northern US. Hell Creek Formation is located in Montana, and South/North Dakota. The Hell Creek formation was like a desert, which was very hot, about 104-1 I2f. The Hell Creek was home to turtles, fish, and pine trees. Most creatures there had thick armor skin because livelihood was hard. The Green River Formation took place during the Eocene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Green River Formation is located in Wyoming about 49.7-50.9 millions years ago. The Knightia fish was the most famous fish there. The climate was warm, 15-20c. The La Brea Tar Pits was home to the Saber Tooth Tiger, Mastodons, Dire Wolf, and La Brea Stork. The La Brew Stork had weak bones. The rocks found there are of Asphalt rocks. The La Brea Tar Pits is located in Los Angeles, California in the Pleistocene Period 2.5 million years ago.

Finally evolution is the only reason we as humans are what we are today. From along time ago to now we have now developed our genetic makeup. Even though our skin colors aren't the same as everyone, or our looks we are still humans, and we must have evolved from something that lived in the past. Our ancestors were the ones that brought us all here. Through time evolution is still happening today, but you don't really see it because you are evolving as others evolve too. Evolution is change in the genetic makeup of a population or species over time. The movie Evolution was the type of movie that shows how organism evolved into creatures, and how the creatures act and react to things they like or dislike. In the end, from water to land, our earth has been evolving for years.

Derell Young

Evolution is the process in which single cells within the population going from simple to complex. In the beginning of the movie the organism population was very diminutive, as they experimented on these creatures mitosis was starting to occur then the population was escalating swiftly. Evolution was starting to occur because the creatures were doubling rapidly but they were also expanding in size. The species had more than 10 base pairs that was why they evolved quick and walked faster than the humans.

The little species would go to the multicellular process every second they would split and half and another species would do the same thing and minute after minute they started mitosis process to form a combination. Worms and mushrooms were duplicating quick and they were trying to attack they would stick to what ever they attached to.

None of the creatures could take the atmosphere they all would attack and suffocate right after, the mosquito looking species went in side the scientist body and died when they pulled him out. The creatures started to get more clever and they developed their on atmosphere.

Their atmosphere was filled with hydrogen sulphide so every time they exhale or every time they past gas it would release hydrogen sulphide The evolution process increased when the creatures start reproducing and right before they died they would spit out another seed which was adapted to the air it breathes methane and hydrogen sulphur to tolerate oxygen.

This evolution process is the same process that scientist say happen over the last three billion years ago, before humans was produced they say we come from apes but we just have different features and we are able to do things like grab things with or hands and talk. My own theory is that the animals went from cells to worms to mosquitoes, Venus fly-traps, insect's to larger dinosaur looking species that fly and are born adapting to are atmosphere then a day later they formed a monkey looking species that was intelligent all this was the evolution process.

Danny Yu

Evolution is when organism of a population started out simple, then it would change into something more complex. Every living thing started out simple then it takes time before it can evolved into a more complex living thing. Every organism started out with one cell and as time goes by it would begin to split into more and more cells. We human take along time before our cell can split into two or more cell and evolved into a different organism with more intelligence. Since Earth was here about 3.5 billion years ago.

Long time ago, about 3.5 billion years ago the only thing on earth was rocks and dirt. The first cell was bacteria (prokaryota). Along with bacteria is cyanobacteria that carried out photosynthesis and released oxygen gas into the ocean. It was just like 530 millions years ago (mya), in burgess shale where there were no creature living on land or on grass, they only lived in the sea. Paleontologist used a crowbars, hammers, picks, showers, chisels, magnify glass, drill to dig and find fossil in the burgess shale. Dr. Whittington had discovered the Opabinia, it have a trunk which it use to grab thing and it have 5 eyes on top of the head. There is also the Hallucigenia which had spike on it body to protected him from it predator. After couple of billion years has gone by the organism begin to change.

Then about 1.5 billion years ago a new organism evolved from archaebacteria to Protists that is eukaryotes. Eukaryotes have DNA that enclosed within a nucleus and complex systems of internal membranes. There are six different group of living thing that is called kingdoms. The eubacteria and archaebacteria are single celled prokaryotes.

While other kingdoms like protista, fungi, plants, and animals evolved into great diversity of protista. During the Cambrian era about 10,000 new species had been develops. One of them is the Animalocarus that used it arm and then it chomps to capture it food. Also the fin on the outside of the Animalocarus legs is to help them swim and walk. The Picaya have a notocord which help it stay alive today in the ocean since the Cambrian era. Just like Mazon Creek, it is during the carboniferous period in the Paleozoic era, 300 million years ago. It is located in Illinois. The environment was dry, wet, with a lot of rivers, bays, and with a lot of different type of animals, fish. The Tullymonster is one of the typical fossils that they have there. It is hard for fish in the saltwater to move into freshwater because of osmosis, where the water is moving into the cell and it would have too much water, so it would exploded. Teraspid fish had a shell to prevent the water from going into the cell and the kidney helps it breathe so it able them to live in freshwater without salt. More species begin to develop backbone after moving to freshwater because the bone can stores calcium and force.

Then the organisms begin to change into multicellular which make them more complexes and can see with their eyes. Just like the Ichtyostega was the first to walk on land because it ribs were able to supports it heart, lungs, stomach, and other organs. The Salamanders have limbed (legs) to crawl in shallow water. They also evolved from freshwater to land, which they dominated, but they have to go back to the water because their body is losing water on land. Some places like Liaoning, which is located in Northeast china, 150 million years ago during the cretaceous period in the Mesozoic era. It had a lot of volcano and it is dry and hot. There are a lot of dinosaurs some can fly like the confuciusocns and some cannot like the sinosauropteryx and protarchaeopteryx. Hell Creek is located in Montana, Dakota. It is 68 million years ago and is in the Mesozoic ear. That was the end of the dinosaur age like the triceratops and auatotian. It had very mild weather, active volcanoes and semi-tropical that are not swampy. Green River is located in Colorado, Wyoming during the Eocene period in the Cenozoic era. About 4060 million year ago, there were a lot of fish like the knightia fish. It was warm and subtropical with the temperature of 15-20C. Finally, the La Brea Tar Pits which is located in Los Angeles, California about 40,000 years ago during the quaternary era. There are a lot of rocks, animals like horses, mastodious, Bisons, camels, mountain lion sabertooth. Also plant, wood, leaves cones, and seed. It is cool and humid with the temperature 32C.

It would take those species a long time before they can adapted to our atmosphere and breathe what we breath (oxygen). After generation and generation of those species they finally get use to and adapted to our environment. Now they can breathe in oxygen without choking and can stay alive by finding foods to survive. When fire and heat react with them they would change and evolved into a bigger different species because if the organisms stay in cool or cold place like in the refrigerator it would not evolve. Mutation causes the organism to evolve into a more intelligent organism, like primates. This helps scientists' figure out, how the organisms can changes into another different organism.

Pei Xan Yu

Evolution is a process for the organisms within a population to change because the environment. When the environment gets change, the population gets to change along too. The population might increase or decrease by that time. Almost every organism are start from one cell, then it begins develop more cells, and then begin to form another organism as time goes. The evolution will happen.

In the movie "evolution." A meteor fell down to the earth, the scientist were concerned about it. They found out a lots and a lots thing from the meteor. They get some sample from the meteor to the school, and using DNA to explore it. They had over 10based pairs. The sample they took began evolved more complex, and broke the slide within few seconds under the microscope. The next hour, when they back to cave, the mushrooms and flat worms were forming in the cave. Within few hours, the cell became mufti cellular. The aliens started to appear, and they were unable breathe on earth, most of them died, because they could not adapt the human environment and atmosphere. The organisms went through the process of mutation. Due to the scientists research, they observed that they rain forest was form; this allowed certain organisms able to live in different environment.

In the other movie called "Evolution", it is about evolution too. In this movie was show a good example about how to evolve to a human. In every living organism, there are cells and inside almost every cell there are twisted, ladder-like molecules know as DNA. The information contained in the DNA molecules provides a set of codes or the "blueprints", for building other molecules used by the cell. As an organism grows, the genes are decoded and read by the cells and start to case the embryo to form into the organism it will grow up to be whether it a fish, chicken, or human.

The DNA of an organism changes what it will be and become. It is related to the development of species and organisms, thus meaning it corresponds with how an organism is formed and what it will become. DNA is like a captain of a ship, the DNA of an organism tells or guides the rest of the growing organism into the next stages of their existence. It leads them into their development. An organisms DNA, is the foundation of how they grow, when they grow, and what organisms they will grow into. DNA supports the theory of evolution because it shows the changes an organism goes through. There are evolutionary steps that species have to have taken in order to have certain genes to evolve them into the living organisms they are today. DNA separates organisms from each other, but can also relate them together.

Evolution is still a theory until it is proven. There is very strong evidence found today and in the past that has given its defense, against anti-evolutionist and nonbelievers, a higher advantage and evidence to prove them wrong and the evolutionary theory right. Solid evidence is needed to prove anything fact and I believe with the three main areas discussed in this paper. It is very strong and high likely that the theory of evolution is, in fact, true. The fossil records, DNA studies, and development of organisms in some way or form do show evolutionary steps within itself.

In real life, evolution dose not evolve that fast, everything needs time to change, even million years. The evolution are from the single cell, and it starts developing more complex, one cell to two, two cell to four, and begin grow bigger and bigger within a short period. From that, we can know that the apes had gone through evolution. After billions years, we are now call human, but we still have some similarities that are the same as the apes, such as our feet and hands, and the hairs. The apes first walked with their four feet, then they walked with their two feet, the apes also went through evolution before human. Moreover, so are the fossils, too. By learning this unit, we can know that how we live under several different environments, and how we can be adapting to them.