Student Work:

Evolution of Flight

Christina Khalil
Diana Lu
Sam Tang
Maurice Hightower
Justin Geter
Nick Barnum
Christina Wagner
Louie Lau
David Ross
Jeremy Hui
Ryan Maxwell
Nancy Gallegos
Keithrie Jennings
Justin King
Adaysha Patton-Douglas
Joseph Chiang
Lauren Bell
David Nguyen
Johnson Chen
Brandon Williams
Jeff Huang
Peter Wong
Mass Extinction
Joseph Laurente
Ashley Mooring
Patricia Nolan
Mina Pan
Silvia Sanchez
Nancy Nguyen
Michael Vo
Peter Tran
Ursula Choice
May Dan Kuang
Kenny Wong
Jaime Respicio
Johnny Li
Bich Ha Tran
Peter Yee
Lori Cheng
Angel Xie
Rowena Kumar
Naeemah Hunt
Maria Silao
Danny Yu
Pei Xian Yu
Wardah Asaba
Helen Tran
Jing Chen

Evolution of Hominids

Tyrone Corley
Cherry Mendoza
David Liang
Kura Cohen
Diana Merino
Jessica Ramos
Dennis Lim
Reggie Moore
Yan Jun Lu
Jeffrey Cheng
Jacky Lao
Calvin Yao
Jing Liang
David Bituin
Diana Uriarte
Derrel Young
Ericka Bozman

Student Work


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Evolution Debates 2002

 

Evolution of Flight

Christina Khalil

Qutline

  1. Topic
  2. Theory/definition
  3. fight to air
  4. mammels...reptiles...birds
  5. flights and whats its capable of
  6. amazing thing bout evolution
  7. what the 3 has in common
  8. feathers... everything

Critique

Opening Statement:

There are two main theories, which are: Ground Up Scenario, and Trees Down Scenario. The Ground Up Scenario is the flight must have proceeded from grounded into air. The Trees Down Scenario is the leaping of trees that provide the acceleration and the speed necessary for flight. If the ancestor was a glider, its gliding structure tuned into wings. It had to flap its gliding membrane. If the ancestor was not a glider then its wings must have developed from another function of the air. Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds all evolve around the same things such as flight. Flight evolved millions of years ago in all of the groups, which are capable of flight today,

Evolution of Flight Summary

There are two main theories, which are, Ground Up Scenario, and Trees Down Scenario. The Ground Up Scenario theory is that the flight must have proceeded from grounded into air. The Trees Down Scenario theory is the leaping of trees that provide the acceleration and the speed necessary for flight. If the ancestor was a glider, its gliding structure tuned into wings. It had to flap its gliding membrane. If the ancestor was not a glider then its wings musty have developed from another function of the air. Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds all evolve around the same things such as flight. Flight had evolves millions of years ago in all of the groups, which are capable of flight today. The most amazing fact about the evolution of flight is the extent of convergent evolution between the three main groups that evolved it which are the pterosaurs, birds, and bats. Flight muscles stretch from the wing to the breast bone. A bird must be light in order to fly, which means birds have no teeth, either they tare the food with teeth or they eat only food they can swallow. The bones are fused (reduced in size) reducing mass of skeleton and distributes mass to center of body. Feathers provide lift to fly. Feathers have maximal flexibility and strength with minimal weight. Counter feathers cover body and wings, it often asymmetrical, and provides an aerodynamic shape to wings. Microscopic hooks give these feathers flexibility and strength. Down feathers are the ones with no hooks, it primary function is to insulate. When ends of feathers disintegrate, it is known as power down. Power down is known to cause things to be water proof. It mostly occurs on herons, parrots, and hawks. Semiphores crosses between contour and down feathers. It lies beneath down feathers. It provides insulation and it helps the birds to be more aerodynamic. Filplumes are long and hair like. It has sensory Corpuscles which lets birds know the levitation of its feathers during flight. Bristles only have a few hooks, found around eyes and nostrils and corners of mouth Maybe to sense positron of prey.

Diana Lu

Outline

  1. Feathers provide lift to fly.
    1. Feathers have maximal flexibility and strength and minimal weight.
      1. Contour Feathers- covers the body and wing, often asymmetrical, and provides an aerodynamic shape to the wings. Microscopic hooks give these feathers flexibility and strength.
  2. Flight
    1. Muscles stretch from the wing to breast bone
    2. To fly birds must be light weight: so birds have no teeth, either tear food with beak or eat only foods they swallow whole
    3. Bones are fused, so it is reduced in size, and distributes the mass of bones to the center of the body.
  3. Endothermic
    1. High temperature permits metabolism in bird's flight muscles.
    2. Rapid metabolism is needed to satisfy the large energy requirements for flight
  4. Archaeopteryx
    1. "Ancient wing"
    2. 150 million years old
    3. Size of a crow
    4. Earliest bird

Rebutal Statement

Ground Up Scenario: Given a bipedal cursorial (running) ancestor of a flying lineage, flight must have proceeded from the ground into the air, assuming that the ancestor did not normally live in trees, or if there were no trees around. We know from extant (living) animals that gliding is mainly useful from the trees, so we can be fairly safe in ruling out a gliding ancestor in this case. A quadrupedal al ancestor would have problems evolving flight from the ground up; it would have to be able to be bipedal in order to use its wings at all! A cursorial bipedal animal would have its arms free to do with them a while running, and its running speed would allow it to achieve the minimum speed necessary for liftoff.

Notes:

Birds wouldn't have enough energy

Evolution of Flight Summary

Evolution of flight has two main theories, which are ground up scenario and trees down scenario. The ground up scenario is flight must have proceeded from ground into air. The trees down scenario is when they leap off trees would provide acceleration and speed necessary for flight. Its ancestor was a glider and their gliding structure turned into wings. It had to flap its gliding membrane and if the ancestor wasn't a glider then its wings must have developed from another function of the air. Flight evolved for many reasons. They evolved to escape from predators, to catch flying or speeding prey, to help move from place to place, to free hind legs for use as weapons, to gain new food sources or an unoccupied niche. Feathers provide lift for birds to fly. Feathers have maximal flexibility and strength with minimal weight. There are Contour Feathers, Down Feathers, Semiplunes, Filoplumes, Bristles, etc. Contour Feathers cover the body and wing. It often is asymmetrical and provides an aerodynamic shape to wings. Microscopic hooks give these feathers flexibility and strength. Down Feathers has no hooks and their primary function is to insulate. Semiplumes cross between contour and down feathers. It provides insulation and helps the bird to be more aerodynamic. Filoplumes are long and hair like. They have sensory corpuscles at the base of each one that lets the bird know the position of each feather. Bristles only have a few hooks. Bristles are found around the eyes, their nostrils, and corners of their mouth. Every bird has its own features that help him or her fly. Muscles stretch from the wing to breastbone. To fly birds also must be light so birds have no teeth. In order for them to eat they either tear food with beak or they only eat food that they could just swallow as a whole. Bones are also fused (reduce in size) reducing mass of skeleton and distributes mass of centre of body. Birds are endothermic. It is high temperature permits metabolism in bird's flight muscles. Rapid metabolism is needed to satisfy the large energy requirements for flight.

Sam Tang

Outline

  1. Feathers provided lift to fly.
    1. Feathers have maximal flexibility and strength with minimal weight.
      1. Contour Featherscovers body and wings, often asymmetrical, and provides an aerodynamic shape to wings. Microscopic hooks give these feathers flexibility and strength.
      2. Down Feathers- no hooks, primary function is to insulate. Occurs in herons, parrots

Critique

Summary

The birds have many different abilities to help it fly. Feathers provide lift for birds to fly, because the feathers have maximum amount of flexibility and strength with the most minimum amount of weight. There are different kinds of feathers, one kind is the Contour Feather, it covers' the bird's body and wings. Contour Feathers are often asymmetrical, and provide an aerodynamic shape for the wings. Down Feathers have no hooks, and the primary function of it is to insulate heat. These Down Feathers occur in herons, parrots, and hawks. The Semiplumes is a cross between the Contour and Down Feathers. It lies beneath the Down Feathers. It provides insulation and more aerodynamic than the Down Feathers. The Filoplumes are long and hair-like. It has sensory corpuscles to let birds know where the location of it's feathers during flight. Bristles have a few hooks. Bristles are mainly found around the eyes, nostrils, and the corners of its mouth. For birds to fly, the muscles must be stretched from the wing to breastbone. Bird's head cannot be heavy, so they have no teeth. Birds must eat food that they can swallow whole, or they have to tear the food with their beaks. The bird's bones are fused together, to reduce size and distribute all the mass to the center of the body. Birds are endothermic, the high temperature permits metabolism in the bird's flight muscles. The rapid metabolism is needed to satisfy the large energy requirements for flight.

Maurice Hightower

Outline:

  1. Opening Statement
    1. Tree Down Scenario
      1. Climbing up a tree
      2. Jumpin goff and gliding
    2. Pelicans and Vultrures
    3. It would be easier to glide first, then achieve power flight.

Critique

Justin Getter

Outline

  1. tree down scenario
    1. body construction
      1. bones inflated with air so the bird body would be a lot lighter
      2. the feathers helped the flight of the birds cause of the shape of the feather
      3. the body parts and the bones are fussed to eachother for stronger body construction

Critique

Summary

The ground up scenario flight must have proceeded from ground into air. The trees down scenario leaping off trees would provide the acceleration and speed necessary for flight. If the ancestor was a glider it's gliding structure turned into wings. If the ancestors were not a glider then its wings must have developed from another function of the air. The used the evolution of flight to escape from predators, to catch flying or speeding prey, to help move place to place, to free hind legs for use as weapons, and to gain access to new food sources. The lack of teeth in birds is cause the birds head needs to be light for the to fly. A bird's skeleton is designed for flight; many bones are fused, or reduced in size, reducing the mass of the skeleton, and redistributing mass towards the centre of the body. Many bones in a bird's body are pneumatized, meaning that they contain large air pockets that are connected to the repertory system. Bird bones therefore are very light.

Nick Barnum

Outline

  1. Why tree down scenario is better than ground up?
    1. the bird is already is in the air
    2. so the bird can know how to land property
  2. feathers can play a role?
    1. certain feathers do certain things

Critique

Summary

The vertebate of flight consist if two main theories and thoose theories are ground up and tress down. Ground up consist of flight having to proceed from ground into air. Tress down consist of leaping off tress by that prosses that would provide the acceleration and speed necessary for flight. Flight evolved for a couple of reasons such as escaping from predators, catch flying or speeding prey, to move from place to place, to free hind legs for use as weapons, to gain access to new food sources or an unoccupied niche. That is what flight is mainly used for. The feathers are used with maximal flexibility and strenth with a little weight. The power of flight comes from the large breast muscles. The muscles get most of it's strenth from the wing to the breast bone. High temperature permits metabolism in birds flight muscles. Rapid metabolism is needed to satisfy the large energy requirements for flight. Feathers have evolved from reptitian scales which are composed of keratain and is complexed in structure. There are five different kinds of featers which are contour, down, semiplumes, filoplumes and bristles each as it's different shape and stucture. The contour featers cover the body and wings. They provide an aerodymamic shape to the wings. The contour feathers has both flexible and strength. The down feather has a simple structure their primary function is as insulation. These feathers produce an aid such as water proofing and grooming. This prosses is called powder down birds such as herons, parrots, and hawks have it. The semiplumes provides insulation and makes the bird more aerodynaic. The filoplume feathers are long and hair like also are sensory in function. The sensory corpuscles are located at the base of each filoplume. The bristle feathers only have a few hooks and barbules. The feathers are found around the eyes, nostrils and at the comers known as the ricta of the mouth. Usally the birds use the ricta bristles to sense position of prey.

Christina Wagner

Outline

  1. Scientist are confused by the debate over birds, and how flight evolved.
    1. Did birds come from small dinosaurs?
    2. Did they climb trees and glide on the way to flight.
    3. Did they run and jump form the ground?
  2. Modern Birds
    1. Legs are too frail to run and jump
    2. Whole suite ob behavioral and physical traits.
      1. geathers
      2. wings
      3. improved brood-care
      4. improved parenting

Summary

Evolution of flight muscles consumes 30 percent of the body's capacity. Mutation led to the wings o evolution. Archaeopteryx is 150 million years old, which is the oldest bird around. They have an attachment for flying muscles. They also need their wishbone to help them fly. Although they came about 150 million years ago they did not become known until the pterosaurus became extinct. Birds and dinosaurs have so many similarities to one another except for the feathers. Scientists say birds are feathered dinosaurs. Early birds had theeth but modern birds don't. Although modern birds and early birds have some simularitys, they are still unique in their own ways. Bats are the second group of mammals to evolve true powered flight. Bats came about from it's ancestor 60-65 million years ago. Scientist are still not sure that Chiroptera is a proper Monophylotic group. A guess has been made that they came from two different ancestors, if that is true it means that mammals evolved twice in flight and for times in vertebrates. The first vertebrates that evolved were the flying reptiles. In the 18th century the fossils Pterosaurs was discovered but they thought it was a failed experiment in flight. However they lasted for 140 million years. It takes alot for a pigeon to adapt to flying. It has a big breast bone and just like the Archaeopteryx's they have a lot of bone attachment for flying. Flight was evolved to escape predators, get food, travel, and to get more acces to food sources. Wings came about from arms. Their also known as a sexual structure. Inorder for you to get wings your ancestor behaviors ment something and so did their adaptions.

Louie Lau

Outline

  1. Winged reptiles included the pterodactyl, which, during this period, ranged in size from extremely small species to those with wingspreads of 1.2 m (4 ft).
  2. The wings were thin membranes of skin, similar to the wings of a bat, which extended along the sides of the body, and were attached to the extraordinarily long fourth digit of each arm
  3. Bat wings are supported internally by modified hand bones-a fact reflected in the name of the bat order, Chiroptera, which is Greek for "hand-wing." Each wing is made of a double layer of skin (called the wing membrane or patagium) that stretches between the bat's elongated finger bones and attaches to the side of the body and the hind leg. The clawed thumb is free of the wing, and the bat uses the thumb to cling to tree bark or the walls and ceiling of its roost.
  4. They had hollow bones, were lightly built, and had small bodies
  5. Quetzalcoatlus was a flying reptile whose wing-span was just under 36 feet wide (10.96 m). It was the largest flying animal ever found. It had hollow bones, was lightly built, and had a small body. Even though it was very big, it probably weighed only about 300 pounds (135 kg). It had toothless jaws and a long, thin beak. The neck was 10 feet (3 m) long. The legs were over 7 feet (2.1 m) in length, as was the long head
  6. As from the resources from starsandseas.com (Mr. Hartzogs web site) said pterodactyls probably hunted its prey by gliding toward the water and swooping up its meals

  7. The wings of such so-called flying animals as flying foxes, flying lizards, and the flying squirrel are merely expansions of the skin along the sides of the body to assist the animals in jumping from tree to tree, or from a tree to the ground.
  8. Archaeopteryx seemed to be part bird and part dinosaur. Unlike modern-day birds, it had teeth, three claws on each wing, a flat sternum (breastbone), belly ribs (gastralia), and a long, bony tail. Like modern-day birds, it had feathers, a lightly-built body with hollow bones, a wishbone (furcula) and reduced fingers. This crow-sized animal may have been able to fly, but not very far and not very well. Although it had feathers and could fly, it had similarities to dinosaurs, including its teeth, skull, lack of a horny bill, and certain bone structures. Archaeopteryx had a wingspan of about 1.5 feet (0.5 m) and was about 1 foot ( 30 cm) long from beak to tail. It probably weighed from 1 I to 18 ounces (300 to 500 grams

Rebuttal Outline:

  1. Birds with claws
    1. Fossils clearly shows bats have claw like fingers that they use to climb
    2. Birds we see today have feet with claws, which probably originated from having claws for climbing
  2. Reptiles flying
    1. Since Reptiles like the Archaeopteryx's fossil it shows sign of claw like fingers
    2. With no hallow bones this bird was probably climbed and glided off.

Critique

David Ross

Outline

  1. Ground up
    1. Small animals trying to capture insects with their forelimbs occasionally would leap up into the air after them. However, this particular theory does not explain how the insects got off the ground in the first place. Were they "leaping" after something, too?
  2. Tree down
    1. Animals that had climbed into the trees suddenly had to jump down to evade predators. eventually these jumping animals evolved wings in an effort to better escape predators. The pterosaur is a perfect example. It has strong claws for climbing. The wings of some flying dinosaurs are thin, which would serve as a good gliding purpose.
  3. Archaeopteryx
    1. has a wishbone (furcula) Some recent fascinating studies using moving X-rays of birds as they fly show how the shoulder girdle has to be flexible to cope with the incredible forces of the power-stroke in flight. You can actually see the wishbone flex with each wing-beat.
    2. has what is called a grasping hallux, or hind toe, pointing backwards. Rearward-facing toes may be found in some of the dinosaurs but not a true grasping hallux with curved claws for perching. Evolutionist John Ostrom speculates that feathers evolved from large scales on the forelimbs of dinosaurs and that these long feathers, as they developed, were used to catch insects! they're an incredibly complex structure to use just for this purpose. And they would blow the insect out of the way. Birds couldn't clap their limbs together in front.
      1. along with all perching birds,

Summary

The latter theory posits that tree climbing dinosaurs evolved mechanisms to glide from trees or other elevations to some distance away from that spot, landing on the ground. While the latter is more attractive than the prior on the surface level, the prior theory is most likely the correct theory. Most paleontologists of the 19th and early 20th centuries agreed that they could fly to some extent, though not necessarily as capable as today's birds and bats. After the 1920's, opinion seemed to go downhill: namely, that they were mere gliders, with weak, flimsy wings that easily suffered debilitating tears. With the growing popularity in the last few decades of the image of dinosaurs as agile, possibly warm-blooded animals, pterosaurs have been recognized as powered, highly successful flyers. The pterosaur body was highly adapted to enduring the rigors of flight. Many bones are fused together, providing a sturdy framework for the muscles and other organs. The pelvic vertebrae had in fact fused with the pelvic bones, providing a shock-absorbing structure (the synsacrum) that braced the animal when it landed. In larger pterosaurs, the pectoral vertebrae were similarly fused in a structure called the notarium. The sternum, or breastbone, had a keel that provided an attachment for large pectoral muscles, and a forward projection, the cristospine, may have functioned much like the furcula ("wishbone") in birds. Many rhamphorhynchoid fossils show the outline of a flap of skin at the tip of the tail that may have acted as a rudder, and the neural spines were likewise elongated in some. In order to reduce weight, pterosaur bones were hollow; indeed, they were even thinner than many avian bones. The later pterodactyloids, as mentioned earlier, lost all traces of teeth and may have had horny beaks. Most likely they were. Active flight is a strenous activity, and any creature that wants to fly must have a high metabolism. Birds and bats are definitely warm-blooded; the presence of fur, and the adaptations for flight that pterosaurs undertook surely imply that they were warm-blooded.

Flight Summery

Bats, also known as Chiropterans are the second most diverse groups of mammals to evolve the power of flight. You can see the striking resemblance between the archaeopteryx. The skeleton structure and organ placement is very similar. Even though there were only 7 archaeopteryx and bats still live today, a much simpler comparison can be made between the archaeopteryx and the modern day chicken. The bone structure is very similar and the wishbone has formed to give the bird a slight lift. However chickens cannot fly. An ancient flyer like the archaeopteryx, the pterosaur, was the first animal to obtain the power of flight as we know. Wings and feathers were developed for various reasons scientists believe. They were used to catch small prey, gliding from tree to tree or to obtain lift of the ground while running at high speeds. The archaeopteryx is about 150 million years old. Its wishbone showed that it could indeed fly. This bird/ dinosaur had teeth and had a very long tail. It had a collar bone to help absorb the stress from flying.

Jeremy Hui

Outline

  1. Ground Up Theory
    1. This theory proposes that flight evolved in running bipeds through a series of short jumps. As the jumps became more and more extended, the wings were used for balance and propulsion eventually resulting in flight without a gliding Intermediate. There are two models that attempt to explain this theory.
    2. It is proposed that bipedalism allowed fee movement of the forearms, making them available for catching prey As the feathers enlarged over time it would make them a better tool for batting and catching insects, by chasing and swatting them with their wings. As the forelimb enlarged, the notion would turn from swatting into actual flapping tight
  2. Arboreal Theory
    1. This theory states that a climbing proavian started to glide between trees eventually leading to wing strokes as the precursor to flight. The rudimentary feathers that developed from scales on arboreal reptilian birds acted like a parachute slowing the descent as the animals leaped from branch to branch, hence controlling their jumps and falls. It is suggested that proavians were ground foragers and used trees to nest, hide, and roost. The proavians would climb trees through the use of manual and pedal claw°s that are evident in the fossil record. As the jumps became a greater distance, an unspecialized glide with a steep angle would develop. Gliding would increase distance, maneuverability, and slow down landing. Once gliding became specialized then flapping would begin. During landing they would Clap their swings to -,low the decent. This motion would eventually give rise to active flight.
  3. Rebuttle
    1. When the Birds climb rip the trees their wings could leave gotten damaged

Rebutal Outline

  1. Climbing the trees would damage feathers
  2. With gravity and huge body weight how does it fight the gravity when it drops to glide.

Critique

Summary

How flight is evolved in a group depends on what ancestor's behavior and adaptations on the environment. Wings were evolved by gliding ancestors who began to flex and produce thrust. Wings were exaptation and decendents used them for flying. The reasons for wings is because they were used to catch small prey, gave them ability to leap, and sexual display structure. Wings were evolved because of small bipedal animals leaped which wings assisted leaping. Running ancestors of flying lineage show that flight was from ground up and that gliding began from top of trees which they would glide downward. If the species were to fly from straight ground then it would have to spread its arms free while running and the speed would began giving the specie flight. Arboreal ancestors of flying lineage went from trees to the air like a semi-bipedal gliding animal that leaped off of tress to get acceleration. The wings on these species must have flopped to do flight. The evolution of flight was for the specie to escape from predators, catch prey, move from place to place, use free hindlegs for use of weapons, and to gain access to new food sources. Species such as Archaeopteryx, the oldest extinct bird is about 150 million years old and is believed to have started it all. The Archaeopteryx has enlarged breastbones that is enlarged and has a keel down the midline that provide solid attachment for flying muscles. It also has collarbone that links to the shoulder which provides itself for flight. This specie is also similar to the pigeon specie because both of them have big breast bone, collarbone, and has a lot of adaptations for flying.

Ryan Maxwell

Outline

  1. Dromaeosaurs, Archaeopteryx, and early birds such as Sinornis, are animals that we must consider to understand the origin of flight in birds.
  2. Dromaeosaurs were all bipedal, fairly cursorial, and terrestrial. Many modern birds are arboreal, but modern birds have had 150 million years of evolutionary separation from their origin, so they are poor analogs for the origin of flight in birds
  3. To study the origin of flight is not to deal with why modern birds live in trees, but how ancient birds got into the air.
  4. Because Archaeopteryx shows basically the same features as dromaeosaurs except for its wings and feathers, the simplest explanation is that the origin of flight in birds was a "ground-up" scenario, almost identical to the scenario in the origin of flight in pterosaurs.
  5. Another note to make is that area where the original fossil bird was found does not show any evidence of large trees being present. This alone does not disprove arboreality, but is one more problem with the "trees-down" model.

Critique

Summary

The evolution of flight dates back to the dinosaurs. The first vertebrates to ever evolve flight were the pterosaurs that were flying archosaurian reptiles. However as a group the pterosaurs lasted about 140 million years meaning that flying may not have been adapted for escaping predators but for chasing prey and when it was all gone so were they. Birds such as Archaeoptery evolved from bipedal dinosaurs about 150 million years ago, it was not common until after the extinction of the pterosaur. However the two looked alike not counting the fact that one had feathers. The fact that Archaeoptery resembles pterosaur so closely could mean that they lived in the same conditions and so they had the same mutations but it most likely means that the two are related. There are many explanations for the evolution wings, some being they evolved from arms and were used as nets, they evolved to assist small bipedal animals in jumping, they were for sexual display, and they were for gliding. The one which seems the most reasonable based on the fact that the first bird evolved from a bipedal dinosaur is that they assisted bipedal animals in leaping and over time they learned to use them to fly, probably to get food, not be food or find a new, safer nesting place. The adaptation of flight would have added weight to each animal because it makes up about 30% of the body weight. Similarities between the archaeopteryx and modern birds are their feathers, their short tail bones and they all have a collar bone which is a torque absorbing strut linking the shoulders. However there are differences in that modern birds have an anchor flight muscle and hollow bones making them lighter for flight were, as early birds did not.

Nancy Gallegos

Outline

  1. One of the early birds that don't have strong legs that show that

Critique

Summary

Paleontology has us understand the unique evoluti on ary history of birds. One of the bird are a bats are th e second most diverse group of mammals ever to evolve d true power for flying. It about 60-65 million year ago flying evolved twice in mammals are four times in verb reates. Another bird is Pterosauria one of the first vert ebrates to evolved true flying. One of the early bird is Archaeopteryx about 150 million years old .As the foss il was found scientists saw that it was involved from a small bipedal dinosaurs. This fossil is the most importa nt fossil ever discovered. Archaeopteryx had a full set of teeth, had a flat breastbone, a long bony tail, Gastra lia (belly ribs), and three claws on the wings that was used to get it prey or maybe trees. However, its feather s, wings, fucula (wishbone) and lest finger are the same characteristics as a modern bird. It breastbone is enlar ged, has a keel down the midline to fall over the sidew ays that provide a solid attachment for better flying mu scles. Having a good collarbone that is called wishbone The wishbone is links to the shoulders, wishbone is n ceded so it could fly. The fossil was found that it had a lot of feathers and it could help to be warm. A modern fossil bird is a pigeon- s that has a lot of adaptation fo r flying. Has a big breastbone, has a lot of bone attach ment point for flying muscles. Has a collarbone that it help it absorb the stressed of flying. It very skinny it 1 ooks gentle and it has a short tailbone sticking out and it short. These bones are very interesting and it helps us see the evolution on birds into the earliest bird to th e modern birds.

Keithrie Jennings

Outline

  1. Opening Statement
    1. In the ground up theory, flight starts in the ground and later on preceeded into the air. This theory says that no trees were actually around. This cancels out gliding ancestors. A bird must be bipedal corsorial to be enable the bird of using both its hands and running at the same time. Its speed must let the bird have the necessary push for it to take flight.

Summary

When we think of flight, we think of insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. What was about these species that helped them to master the arts of flying and why. We will take a journey through the evolution of flight and explore these flying species inside and outside to find out what it takes to fly. To study the evolution of flight, we must go all the way back to the Jurrasic period where we will find the earliest bird known today, the archaepterx. Living 150 million years ago, the archaepteryx's fossil was found in the site, Solenhofen Limestone in Bavaria, Germany. With features we find in modern birds today, the archaepteryx is classied as a bird. With no breastbone, it anchored its flight muscles. It had solid bones and a super effecient lung. Another key feature that seperates the archaepterx from all the other flying species of it's time is it's feathers. The known bird related to the oldest group of living birds are ostrich. In the early cretaceous period, evolution brings up ducks, geese and waterfowls. Then comes woodpecks, parrots, swifts, owls. During the mid cretaceous, passeriformes and songbirds evolve. Then comes shorebirds, birds of prey, flammingos, and penguins during the late cretaceous period. The one essential key factor in a bird is it's feathers. It provides lift and conserves heat. The feather is perfect for flight because of it's maximal flexibility. It gave birds strength with less weight. A feather is made up of tiny pits containing follides. A shaft emerges from the follide. Then Pairs of vanes are developed from opposite sides of the shaft. Each vane is consisting of barbs.

Justin King

Summary

Flight is basically in insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. The feathers are from reptilian scales and are known as lightweight and easily replaced. One of the earliest flight creatures was Arcaetert which lived in Bavaria, Germany. The rock in that area is Solenhofen limestone and the area only know is about 150 millions years ago. The description about Arcahetert is that it had no breastbone, it only had solid bones, it did have feathers, anchor flight muscles, and it also had super efficient lung. The ostrich is known to have relatives belonging to the oldest group of living birds. Ducks, geese, and waterfowl have been around since the early Cretaceous period. Woodpeckers, parrots, swifts, owls, passerformes, and songbirds were around in the mid-Cretaceous period. And the flight animals around the late Cretaceous period were the shorebirds, birds of prey, flamingos, and penguins.

Adaysha Patton-Douglas

Closing Statement Outline

  1. Theory of gliding
    1. Present closing statement
    2. Restate theory

Critique

Joseph Chiang

Opening statement Outline

  1. Evolution of flight: theory of gliding
    1. Present opening statement
              1. Birds evolved though gliding
    2. Show proof
              1. Show essay
              2. UC Davis researcher proposes theory
    3. Explain how we are right
              1. James Carey's (UC Davis ecologist in essay) explanation
              2. Archaeopteryx fossil

Critique

Summary

Currently, there are a lot of flying creatures in the world today. Although there are a large number of these creatures, not many classes in the animal kingdom have this feature. Flight was used successfully in insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. These are the only known creatures that we know of that have wins and the ability top fly. The most successful of these creatures is the bird, since they are found all over the world, across many different species, and in many different evolutionary forms. There are two main features of a bird that separates it from the other flying creatures: the use of feathers and the use of amniotic eggs. The feathers evolved from reptilian scales, are lightweight, and can be easily replaced. They were used to provide lift and also to conserve heat. Feathers provide maximal flexibility and strength in exchange for a lighter weight load. The feathers evolved from the scales that grew on a reptile's feet, on their lower legs The earliest type of bird was the Archaeopteryx. It was discovered in Bavaria, Germany in the Solahofen Limestone, approximately 150 million years ago. It had no breastbone, which anchored its flight muscles, and solid bones, which weighed it down. The positive characteristics were that it had feathers instead of skin flaps and a super efficient lung. Since then, birds have evolved into the flightless ostrich (which has relatives to the oldest group of living birds), bucks, geese, and the waterfowl, all within the early Cretaceous period. During the mid-Cretaceous period, woodpeckers, parrots, swifts, owls, passeriformes, and songbirds evolved. In the late Cretaceous period, shorebirds, birds of prey, flamingos, and penguins also evolved.

Lauren Bell

Opening statement Outline

  1. To sum up our thoughts we think that basically
  2. The birds started from the ground.
  3. They practiced by leaping and gliding
  4. The birds learned how to fly by building up enough lineages to start to fly on their own.
  5. The ancestor birds began to use their arms for flapping instead of gliding
  6. The early ancient birds were bipedal, which means there wings were free to run around at their necessary speed
  7. I order to fly you have to fly at a certain speed, and have velocity.
  8. There ability to fly came from their wrists called the wishbone
  9. It also built up their arm mussels, that's why we see the ancestor birds in the past had strong mussels

Critique:

Closing statement Outline

  1. I feel the birds needed practice in order to start to fly.
  2. Why did they live in the tree?
  3. They would have to have had a fear of flying or possibly dying?
  4. The theory was that the early species needed to run in order to leap in the air to gain velocity.

David Nguyen

Rebuttal Outline

  1. The species had no way to get a jump-start to have a perfect way of flying off the tree
  2. Once the species jumped of the tree, they fell to the ground
  3. How could new species developed new traits from their ancestors and have the ability to fly off the tree?
  4. The only way to jump off the tree and begin to fly is when the species are small and has space to run across the tree leaping off and flying so only some species can
  5. From the tree there might be a fear from the species on the trees to jump off and attempt to fly.
  6. There is more room from the ground then from the tree
  7. In order for birds to fly, the bird like the archaeopteryx are suggested that the running speed must be at least 2 meters per second back in those days.

Critique

Summary of Flight

Flight has evolved millions of years ago in all the groups that is capable of flight today. Flight has only evolved a few times in the 500 million years of the vertebrate history and that is an accomplishment. There are four types of ways of flight that have evolved for the vertebrates: parachuting, gliding, flight, soaring. In order to find out how flight has evolved, we first must find out how wings evolved. There was a prediction that wings must have been exaptation by the ancestors for one function. There were hypothesis that showed the wings evolved from arms used to capture small prey, they evolved because of bipedal animals were leaping into the air and it assisted the arms. Another theory was that wings evolved from gliding ancestors who began to flap their gliding structure in order to produce thrust. How flight evolved in a group depends on what its ancestors were doing and the adaptation to them. To understand the evolution of the flying lineage, we must understand the phylogeny of that group, understand the functional morphology relevant to flight, find evidence explaining how flight evolved, and formulate an evolutionary hypothesis why flight evolved in that lineage. The latest sign of flight was when a 130 million year old fossil was digged up by farmers in northeastern China that was evidence of flight which turned out to be a Dromaeosaur. It is a skeleton of a 3 feet long duck-like dinosaur. Scientist believed that the Dromaeosaur and their kin were warmed blooded so t hat there feathers can served originally as insulation, then for display and then for flight. To find these environment where the organisms found also helps to constrain possible behavior. Flight is still a mystery to science today about how it really began and how it is passed on to the vertebrate that are living today. Though vertebrates now mainly evolve flight a few times, the invertebrates has only evolved flight once. The insects were the first animal to evolve flight and is still evolving flight today.

Johnson Chen

Outline

  1. Flight:
    1. The birds don't have hands or claws to climb on the tree.
    2. On the tree, they might don't have any space for pretest fly.
    3. The trees are small to have the specie leap off and begin to fly
    4. The Ground had a lot space to help the bird fly.
    5. There is a running start in order to leap off the ground.
    6. From the ground, they have more chose to jump and began to fly then from the trees.
    7. The birds practice more from the ground, because of the less chance of getting hurt.

Critique

Vertebrate Flight Summary

In last week, my group had study about Vertebrate Flight. It is kind of hard, but it is so cool, cooler then I never thought about it. Perhaps the most perplexing and controversial aspect of the study of flight is the study of how and why flight evolved. Since flight evolved millions of years ago in all the groups which are capable of flight today. We must know what is flight, base of that, we know about wings. We can use wings to fly, like birds. In the information that I had, it told me about the evolution of a flying lineage, and it told me the steps of it. 1. the phylogeny of that group, what its origins were. 2. the functional morphology relevant to flight, and how that changed from the nonflying ancestor to the earliest flyer. 3. accumulate empirical evidence explaining how flight evolved, using such tools as aerodynamic analyses, ichnology, and paleoenvironmental assessments. 4. formulate an evolutionary why flight evolved in that lineage, supported by and consistent with all of the evidence form the previous three steps.
And the information that I found in paper, had a lot about wings evolve. 1. Wings evolved from arms used to capture small prey, the large wing area acted as a net seems rational, but is not support by empirical evidence. 2. Wings evolved because bipedal animals were leaping into the air, large wings assisted leaping. 3. Wings evolved from gliding ancestors who began to flap their gliding structures in order to produce thrust.

Brandon Williams

Opening Statement Outline

  1. We say that birds learned to fly by jumping out of trees and flapping their wings to keep flight while in the air. Birds are light weight so the tree supports them, then when they jump out the tree and flap there wings they have more time to try and fly being light weight. Plus there is more protection for birds in trees then on the ground. and to ad to that the Archeaopteryx have found fossils of birds with forelimb claw supporting the concept that ancient birds were tree dwellers.

Critique

Jeff Huang

Rebutal Outline

  1. Flight:
    1. If they ran really fast their legs would have to have lots of muscle and there is no evidence that they did.
    2. From the feature of bird their legs are short.
    3. Being they had weak legs by time they picked up speed to fly they would be fatigued
    4. They would have to fight wind resistance because of there wing stand.
  2. Added during debate
    1. Like you guys said, if they used to run so fast, why did their leg muscles weak?
    2. From the ostrich, their leg is long so that good for running
      1. But they cannot fly, because it wings is short and overweight body.
      2. They lived in the ground, so that they used their wings less
      3. So their wings degenerate or not evolved at all.
    3. We know that, bird have to be light weight in order to fly.
    4. More protetion for bird in trees.
    5. An to add to that, the Archeopteryx have found fossil of birds with forelimb claw supporting the concept that ancient birds were tree dwellers

Critique

Summary on Flight

Flight is an amazing accomplishment, evolved only tree times in the 500 million years of vertebrate history. Flight evolved from the reptiles. Scientists have been arguing about the evolution of flight and according to the fossil records, Archaeopteryx was the earliest bird in the world. It is about 150 million years old. It had teeth and a long reptilian tail, and very few of its bones were fused to each other. These were the feature of dinosaurs. Being compare to the dinosaur, Archaeopteryx had a wishbone and dinosaurs had no wishbone. Unlike the modern day birds, Archaeopteryx had solid bone and modern birds had hollow bone. The solid bone was not good to fly. Archaeopteryx's wing was short and body was large. Modern bird's wing is long and body is small. It is the good feature for flying in the sky. Modern bird's breastbone is larger than the Archaeopteryx's. Ostrich, a largest bird in the world today, cannot fly. Because they have a large body and their wings are short. Its feature looks like some normal birds in the world today. Even though they could not fly, they can run extremely fast so that others animals cannot capture them easily. That's the reason they did not evolve to fly in the sky. And we could see the environment affected the old reptiles to evolve. Wing is the requirement for flight to fly. Wings evolved from arms used to capture small prey. Wing evolved because bipedal animals were leaping into the air, large wing assisted leaping. Wing also evolved from gliding ancestors who began to flap their gliding structures in order to produce thrust. The power for active flight comes from large breast muscles that can make up 30 percent of a bird's total body weight. Later on, the scientist had found a 130 million year-old fossil dug up by farmers in northeastern China that they think it might the ancestor of birds. It was Dromaeosaur, the skeleton of a 3 feet long duck- like dinosaur, a relative of the Velocirator of Jurassic park fame. It was indisputably covered with both feathers and protofeathers, from head to tail. Many scientists believe that Dromaeosaurs and their kin were warm- blooded, so it's good bet that feathers served originally as insulation, then later for display, and still later for flight.

Peter Wong

Closing Statement Outline

  1. Flight tree
    1. Fly by jumping out of trees
    2. Less weight
    3. More time
    4. Fossils

Critique

Summary

Many birds have their own way of flying. One of its abilities is feather it help to lift the bird so it can fly. Feathers have a lot of flexibility and strength with only a little weight. There are many different kind of feathers one of them is the contour, it covers the whole body and wings of the bird. The contour feathers are asymmetrical and provides aerodynamic. That helps the bird to fly better against wind force he down feather have no hooks and its use is to insulate heat. These type of feathers occur in herons, parrots and hawks. The semi plumes lies beneath the down feathers. It help to insulation and more aerodynamic then the down feather. The filoplunmes are long and have hair like, it have sensory corpuscles to let the bird know where its feather is when its flying. The bristlier have fewer hooks it is mainly found around the eyes and near the mouth. When birds fly the wing muscles have to stretch so it can touch the breast bone. The head of a bird can't b heavy or the weight wont be equal. The bird bones are hollow in the inside so it will be less weight so it is not as heavy.

Mass Extinction

Joseph Laurente

Opening Statement Outline

  1. Mass extinctions have caused drastic changes in the environment. -The species that once lived before is now extinct due to the course of evolution.
    1. Last dinosaur species died out 65 million years ago.
    2. Researchers discovered that species had been dying off since life began when they examined layers of rock.
  2. When did it happen? -Almost four billion years ago, and 98% of the species that once lived are now extinct.
  3. Differences in mass extinction theories
    1. A large asteroid that hit the Earth and caused mass extinctions.
      1. Caused tons of dust to get mixed with the atmosphere and changed the environment so that animals could not live.
    2. 240 million years ago, 80%-96% of species have disappeared because it is believed that the impact of the asteroid caused the mass extinctions and made it worse.
  4. What we believe: -We believe that the impact of the asteroid caused the mass extinctions and made it worse.

Critique

Opening Statement

Mass extinctions have caused drastic changes in the environment. The species that once lived before is now extinct due to the course of evolution. For example, the last dinosaur species died out 65 million years ago, and researchers discovered that species had been dying off since life began when they examined layers of rock. This happened almost four billion years ago, and 98% of the species that once lived are now extinct. It is believed that a large asteroid that hit the Earth caused mass extinctions. The asteroid caused tons of dust to get mixed with the atmosphere and changed the environment so that animals could not live. Although, our side believes that the impact of the asteroid caused the mass extinctions and made it worse.

Rebuttal Outline

  1. Why we believe that the impact of the asteroid caused mass extinctions and made it worse:
    1. If the impact occurred in the oceans, giant tsunamis would be generated, and flood the interior of continents.
    2. Pangaea split apart and tectonic plate action occurred.
    3. Massive earthquakes could occur if an object like an asteroid hit the earth
    4. The asteroid could have caused volcanoes to erupt.

Critique

Mass Extinctions Outline

  1. Mass extinctions have caused drastic changes in the environment.
    1. The species that once lived before is now extinct due to the course of evolution.
      1. Last dinosaur species died out 65 million years ago.
      2. Researchers discovered that species had been dying off since life began when they examined layers of rock.
  2. When did it happen?
    1. Almost four billion years ago, and 98% of the species that once lived are now extinct.
  3. Differences in mass extinction theories
    1. A large asteroid that hit the Earth and caused mass extinctions.
      1. Caused tons of dust to get mixed with the atmosphere and changed the environment so that animals could not live. The large quantities of dust put into the atmosphere would block incoming solar radiation. The dust could take months to settle back to the surface. The Earth would be in darkness and temperatures would drop throughout the world, creating global winter like conditions.
      2. 240 million years ago, 80%-96% of species have disappeared because it is believed that the impact of the asteroid caused the mass extinctions and made it worse.
  4. What we believe:
    1. We believe that the impact of the asteroid caused the mass extinctions and made it worse.
      1. Smaller objects would certainly destroy the ecosystem in the area of the impact, similar to the effects of a volcanic eruption, while larger objects could have a worldwide effect on life on the Earth.
      2. Waves of pressures traveled to the other side of the Earth and caused volcanic eruptions.
      3. Large amounts of nitrogen oxides would be produced from combining Nitrogen and Oxygen in the atmosphere due to the shock produced by the impact. The nitrogen oxides would combine with water in the atmosphere to produce nitric acid which would fall back to the surface as acid rain.
      4. If the impact occurred in the oceans, giant tsunamis would be generated. The leading edge would hit the seafloor of the deep ocean basins before the top of the object had reached sea level. The tsunami would produce high waves due to the impact, would could easily flood the interior of continents.
      5. A massive earthquake would result from the impact of the large asteroid with the Earth.
      6. The asteroid could not have caused the extinctions because fossil evidence shows that species had already been decreasing for thousands of years already.

Mass Extinction Summary

Mass extinctions have caused drastic changes in the environment. The species that once lived before is now extinct due to the course of evolution. For example, the last dinosaur species died out 65 million years ago, and researchers discovered that species had been dying off since life began when they examined layers of rock. This happened almost four billion years ago, and 98% of the species that once lived are now extinct. It is believed that a large asteroid that hit the Earth caused mass extinctions. The asteroid caused tons of dust to get mixed with the atmosphere and changed the environment so that animals could not live. Another reason why they were caused is due to the earth's climate and volcanic eruptions. However, the volcanoes could not have erupted if it wasn't for the impact of the asteroid when it hit the Earth. When the asteroid hit the Earth, waves of pressures traveled to the other side of the Earth and caused the volcanoes to erupt. At least 5 major episodes of mass extinctions occurred since life developed on Earth. 240 million years ago, 80%-96% of species have disappeared. Marine organisms and species that lived in the ocean died, such as flat shellfish called trilobites and a group of fish called placoderms. Then, two other mass extinctions occurred which marked the end of the Ordovician period about 435 million years ago and in the Devonian period about 360 million years ago. During these times, tens of thousands of marine species have died. Furthermore, another mass extinction occurred during 205 million years ago, ending the Triassic period. Many species of amphibians and reptiles died, and their extinction set the rise of the dinosaurs. And lastly, the end of the mass extinction occurred during the Mesozoic Era 65 million years ago. During this time, dinosaurs, terrestrial species and marine animals died. Their deaths lead to the rise of mammals and marked the beginning of the Cenozoic Era, the era, which we live in today.

Ashley Mooring

Refute Outline

  1. Problems with the Meteor
    1. The meteor could have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, but it would have caused acid rain, atmospheric dust leading to darkness for years, wildfire and tidal waves kilometers high
    2. However, there are problems with this explanation
      1. Different fossils give different stories in different places
      2. There are some dinosaur fossils above the KT boundary
  2. Other Problems

Critique

Refute Outline

  1. Meteor could have caused the mass extinction.
  2. The meteor buried itself in the Southern Gulf of Mexico
  3. Such a meteor would have caused
    1. acid rain
    2. Atmospheric dust leading to darkness for years
    3. Wildfires
    4. Tidal waves kilometers high
  4. Problems with this explanation
    1. Different fossils were found in different places.
    2. Some dinosaur fossils found above the K/T boundary
  5. Problem with philosopy
    1. The lack of dinosaures in a geological bed is only falsified if the dinosaurs are found.
    2. Pehaps there was not an extinctions.
    3. Perhaps the dinosaurs never reached the place where the bed originated.
  6. Birds are descendents of the Therapid reptiles.
    1. If the birds are dinosaurs, then they din't die out.
    2. It’s a pseudo-extinction (false extinction)

Patricia Nolan

Outline

  1. The spices that appeared 3 billon years ago were in serious danger because of the change of the water level climate change and the salinity. basically the vast spectrums was

Critique

Summary

During or research on the dinosaurs of our time we found out that there were the last species that died millions years ago. There were rocks that had to be examined by the layer and the researchers found out that the species had been dying since life began which was 4 billon years ago. 98% of the species that once lived are now extinct. The species vanished from natural course of evolution. Many of the ecologists believe that the environment has the main powerhouse of evolution. I agree that the asteroid caused tons of dust that mixed up the atmosphere that change the environment, which also made it hard for them to survive. There were many arguments that were surrounded around extinction and what caused eruption and how it spreaded. Our out come of this was that the extinctions were linked to drastic change of the environment and the asteroid impact etc. The measurements of the different isotopes of gases trapped in the buck ball that revealed unusual ratios of helium and argon. 90% of life's oceans disappeared within a millons years the first vertebrates were the most improvement of the body at the end of the Triassic. The Triassic basically began with mass and extinction and ended with one.

Mina Pan

Outline for the Closing Statements:

  1. Main Topic Question: Did asteroid cause effects of mass extinctions?
    1. Geographic Evidence:
      1. Researchers in Japan and China has discover a space rock as large as seven miles wide has hit Earth
      2. Was during the Permian-Triassic extinction event period. II. The Asteroid's Effects:
      3. When the asteroid smashed to Earth it has set off an immense wave of superheated vapor that can roll for hundreds of miles.
      4. While the superheated vapor spread, it kills everything in its way.
      5. The asteroid also caused tidal waves that sent million tons of dust particles and vapor into the atmosphere.
      6. The dust particles and vapor in the atmosphere cause the sun to darken for months and cause the Earth's temperature to decrease.
  2. Particles Left from the Asteroids:
    1. The Permian-Triassic impactor, either an asteroid or comet, left behind subtle deposits of buckminsterfullerenes, or "Buckyballs,"
      1. A form of carbon shaped like a volley ball with a hollow cage-like cavity inside.
    2. Provides strong evidence that the Permian-Triassic extinction was either triggered or speeded up by a massive object falling from space

Critique

Massive Extinction Summary

In 65 million years ago, the very last dinosaur had died off. By examining the layers of the rocks, the researched found out that the species had been dying off since life began. Almost 4 billion years ago. The researcher also found out that 98 percent of the species that once lived are now extinct. People think that the species has vanished because of the natural causes of the evolution. Later on, ecologists stated that the environments have been the main "powerhouse" for the evolution. Theories also say that a large asteroid that hit the Earth causes extinctions of dinosaurs. The large asteroid caused tons of dust particles to get mixed with the atmosphere and caused the change in weather. The changes in the environment lead to the large species dying off. There were also other arguments that say extinctions could be also caused by the widespread volcanic eruptions. So now, this could be combination of factors, which had killed off the dinosaurs. Earth's climate could most likely cause for the dinosaurs to go extinct. Scientists are not sure if the extinctions are really caused be the asteroid because fossil evidence shows that the species had already been dying off for thousands of years. When the asteroid hit the Earth, it might not effects the whole Earth but the waves of pressures traveled to the other side of the Earth could cause the volcanic eruptions.

Silvia Sanchez

Outline

Critique

Summary

Mass Extinction Meteor caused dinosaur extinction It was like 12.0 earthquake The rock was 12 km across. When it hit the earth, helium from buckyball explore. buckyball has 60 carbon atoms The temperature rose up Fill with carbons Gases cover the skies Dust and aerosols were thrown in the air Sky became dark for months Block out the sun-like a nuclear war

Nancy Nguyen

Outline

  1. Opening Statement
    1. Definition of Mass Extinction
    2. Meteor hit 65 million years ago and that is what caused the dinosaur to extinct
  2. paleontologist Charles Marshall of UCLA and geologist Peter Ward of the University of Washington in Seattle
    1. also present evidence that other factors, including a drop in sea level prior to the assault by the massive asteroid or comet, also may have caused some of the extinctions at the end of what is known as the Cretaceous period. Marshall and Ward present evidence demonstrating that a combination of factors caused the mass extinctions.

Critique

Mass Extinction Outline

  1. Definition of mass extinction: Mass Extinction is when a whole group of species get extinct or by definition, dramatic events.
  2. Opening Statement: Of all the species that have lived on the Earth since life first appeared here 3 billion years ago, only about one in a thousand is still living today. All the others, the vast majority, became extinct, typically within ten million years or so of their first appearance. Today, we will debate on whether the dinosaur mass extinction was caused because a meteor hit and caused the extinction or whether the meteor hit and caused environmental problems. My team today will prove that the meteor hit Earth and it caused the extinctions. Another way is saying this is that the dinosaur extinction was caused by a catastrophic agent.
  3. Evidence
    1. Geologist Walter Alvarez of the University of California at Berkeley who first found the cause of the dinosaurs death across the globe in trace deposits of iridium, which is a metal element from outer space.
      1. Levels of iridium found in Gubbio, Italy were roughly 30 times the normal levels.
        1. Extremely rare element
      2. Calculated that a chondritic asteroid approximately 10km in diameter would contain enough iridium to account for the iridium spike contained in the clay layer.
    2. In 1990 a scientist called Alan Hildebrand 'found' a ring structure 180km in diameter which was called Chicxulub. The location of this structure was just off the northwest tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. The crater has been dated (using the 40Ar/39Ar method) as being 65 million years old. The size of the crater is comparable to that which would have been caused by an impacting body with a diameter of roughly l0km. So we now have some of the proof of the asteroid theory. We know that a chondritic meteorite with a diameter of l0km contains enough iridium to cause a spike. We also know that about 65 million years ago there was an impact of a large object.
      1. If a 10km diameter object impacted at the point at which it struck it would have a velocity of roughly 100,000 km/h. At this velocity there would have been an initial blast (with an estimated force of many millions of tons of TNT) which would have destroyed everything within a radius of between 400 and 500km, including the object.
      2. At the same time large fires would have been started by the intense shock wave which would have traveled long distances. Trillions of tons of debris (dust, gases and water vapour) would have been thrown into the atmosphere when the object vaporized. C. Tektites and stishovites, rocks that are made from great heat and pressure, have been found to be around 65 million years old. 1. Tektites were probably formed during a meteorite or comet collision.

Extinction Summary

Scientists say that 250 million years ago a comet or asteroid that hit earth is what caused the dinosaur extinction millions of years later. The crash could've set off violent volcanic eruptions that caused land to be covered with hot lava. Gas isotopes were trapped in carbons and eventually carried to earth by a comet or asteroid. 250 million years ago, when Permian period was ending, the tectonic processes of continental drift began splitting pangea apart. Carbon Dioxide made most existing species extinct. Only a few can survive. 185 million years after great dying, dinosaurs extinct 65 million years ago from crash of space object. The impact created a giant chicxulub crater. Cause of dinosaur's death across the globe in trace deposits of iridium, a metal element from outer space.

Michael Vo

Outline

  1. My Theory:
    1. My Theory Is That 65 Million Years Ago,
    2. When The Meteor Hits The Earth, It Kill about 20% of the dinosaurs,
    3. but after the meteor hit Earth,
      1. all kind of chain reaction happen and kill the rest of the creatures.
  2. info:
    1. Impact of meteorite, drop in sea level caused mass extinctions 65 million years ago

Critique

Mass Extinction Outline

  1. Know the Theory
    1. Asteroid slammed into Earth 65 million years ago, presaging the demise of the dinosaurs and the rise of mammals. There is a crater in Mexico to prove it, as well as heavy concentrations of iridium
    2. a signature of asteroids
    3. spread around the world in soil dated to that time.
  2. Evidence
    1. Earthquakes during the impact of asteroid.
    2. Iridium
    3. 70% of all living things was destroyed
  3. Shows How Evidence Supports Theory
    1. Earthquakes: The tremendous energy of the impact shattered the underlying bedrock into a pile of rubble small rocks and large boulders. It also generated vibrating acoustic waves (acoustic fluidization = solid to liquid)
    2. Iridium was found throughout the world, Iridium is extraterrestrial not found on Earth meaning impact was big.
    3. 70 percent of all living things was destroyed, since
      some predators needed certain preys to live, predators
      then died out.
  4. Master of Opposing Theory
    1. Volcanic activity or extreme climate changes from asteroid.
    2. Many species became extinct gradually due to climate and habitat changes. The meteor impact, followed by extended darkness from dust and debris thrown into the atmosphere, followed by more climate changes, probably weakened the last remaining dinosaurs. The giant meteor may have provided a dramatic ending, but probably was not the only cause of dinosaur extinction.

Peter Tran

Outline

none

Critique

Ursula Choice

Outline

  1. When a meteor hit 65 million years ago, it destroyed the environment and killed off the food sources for the dinosaurs. As a result the dinosaurs slowing began to die as it became harder and harder to adapt.

Critique

May Dan Kuang

Outline About Mass Extinction

  1. Opening Statement
    1. Introduce Mass Extinction
      1. Definition, whole group of species die off
    2. Introduce Dinosaurs
      1. Their history, when they extinction, 65 million years ago
    3. Theory, how they extinct because of atmosphere change, volcanic eruption, and weather change. They can't adapt.
  2. Rebuttal
    1. How evidence show our theory is right. Dinosaurs can't retain heat (no insulation). When the meteor hit and it sent million of dust and cover the sun, no sunlight = no heat and it also result plants to do because of n photosynthesis. Chain reactions
  3. Rebuttal
    1. How a meteor can't be so harmful. Evidence show that the element that is only found in space is found near where the meteor hit and that doesn't mean anything. We all know that a meteor comes from outer space and even though the element on it can spread out quickly and pretty far but that doesn't mean anything. Element is not harmful by itself.
  4. Closing statement
    1. Answer questions about the rebuttal.
      1. How it is not really the meteor that is harmful, use evidence from the other extinction (how it impact on the extinction)

Critique

Outline About Mass Extinction

  1. Opening Statement ..
    1. Introduce Mass Extinction
      1. Definition, whole group of species die off
    2. Introduce Dinosaurs
      1. Their history, when they extinction, 65 million years ago.
    3. Theory, how they extinct because of atmosphere change, volcanic eruption, and weather change. The fact that they can't adapt to the weather because they don't have hair or fur that can help them keep heat within their body.
  2. Rebuttal
    1. How evidence show our theory is right, dinosaurs can't retain heat (no insulation). When the meteor hit and it sent million of dust and cover the sun, no sunlight = no heat. The dinosaur that live during the Cenozoic period don't have hair nor fur they only have scales. Scales don't keep you warm, it only help you in terms of protection. Another thing that result from no sunlight is that no photosynthesis. Not much plants can survive without sunlight. Some dinosaurs that only eat plants to live wouldn't have a food source, so they would probably die off without things to eat. The ones who eat meat wouldn't have a food source because the one who they eat die, so they wouldn't have any more food. It is a cause and effect process
  3. Rebuttal
    1. How a meteor can't be so harmful, they found a element that is only found in outer space after the meteor hit. Although we know that the element can spread out quickly and really far (ex, France to Florida) but then it doesn't really mean anything. The element itself is not harmful, the truth is that even though we have evidence that they are found it doesn't mean anything.
  4. Closing statement
    1. Answer questions about the rebuttal.
      1. How it is not really the meteor that is harmful, use evidence from the other extinction (how it impact the other one)
    2. States that the meteor is not harmful enough to wipe out everything
      1. Even though a meteor will hit and it may cause a severe damage on plants and lands but then it wouldn't wipe out everything that's living on land right then. It have to be something bigger, because the dinosaurs are pretty strong because they are develop and they are not weak in terms of health so they wouldn't die off because a meteor, if only the environment change that it may some possibilities that they die off because they are build to get used to the environment if only something change they can't adapt.

Summary

The extinction of the dinosaurs had always a big question mark to us, because we have limited evidence to prove either one wrong or right. The theory that made the most sense and have gotten the most people to agree on it the meteor-hitting-earth theory. The meteor hit earth and suddenly all the dinosaurs just die off. Personally I think the theory sounds reasonable but then I believe it is not only the meteor that led to the extinction. According to a lot of scientists they think the meteor had trigger other nature reaction. Some of them say it is because of the atmosphere change and led to high CO2 level, and they don't have enough oxygen to breathe. Another say that the dinosaurs die of because they kept on evolving that they are eventually eliminate and become extinct. Animals just automatically update themselves so then this can be a possibly that the environment doesn't suit them no more so then they die oŁ The one I believe the most is that the meteor had hit earth and that it block all the sunlight, the dinosaurs don't have insulation and can't retain heat so they die off' The reason why I believe that is because the famous locality for dinosaurs, Hell Creek is originally a hot place. When a group of animal live in a warm place for a long time they will only have features that can help them stand the heat not the cold. Like the people that live in mountains, they have big lungs so then they can breathe more. The sun is a big light source and it also makes the earth warn, when the earth is not warm no more they can possibly just die off itself.

Kenny Wong

Outline

  1. Scientist found a meteor in the region of Mexico in 1990
    1. Meteor is 10km
    2. Scientist predict that it will travel at 100,000km/h
    3. Will create a crator 180 km wide
  2. would create a shock wave with a radius between 400-500km
    1. would destroy everything inside its shock wave.
    2. Trillions of debris would have been thrown into the atmosphere
      1. would block the sun, and make the temperature drop.
    3. Distance of the shock wave was so wide, scientist had found it all the way in Gulf of Mexico
  3. would cause chain-reaction that would slowly wipe out the dinosaurs
    1. fire burnt out most of the plants
      1. cause lack of food
    2. increase CO2 released by the global fires
      1. lead to acid rain
    3. would blown the dust cloud a long distance
      1. cause months of darkness
        1. temperature drop
      2. wipe out considerable amount of vegetation.
        1. 25% of vegetation was destroyed.
          1. immediately result in the death of large herbivores.
            1. the carnivores would die because of lack of food
    4. earthqukes
    5. volcanic activities
    6. High wind blast
  4. Only small animals survives.

Summary

Dinosaurs are one of the animals that dominated the Earth for 150 million years. Dinosaurs first appear in Triassic period. Scientists believe they were the evolved form of the codants (crocodile-like animal). Scientists believe that the extinction of dinosaurs was because of the chain-reactions of a meteor. They believe that after the meteor hit the Earth, volcano, atmosphere change appear, and because the dinosaurs can't adopt the environment that fast, they died out. Scientists and paleontologists point out that some dinosaur die because of evolution. Scientists predict that if our environment continuous to change, a mass extinction would come soon! The worst extinction in Earth's history - an event 250 million years ago when the vast majority of the living creatures vanished-was cause by the impact of a comet or asteroid much like the one that drove the dinosaurs to extinction millions of years later. The cataclysmic crash must have set off violent volcanic eruptions that covered the land in hot lava, thicken the atmosphere with deadly carbon dioxide and cause rising sea levels to drown the shores of a vast supercontinent.

Jaime Respicio

SUMMARY

250 million years ago, the majority of living things vanished. Many say that it was a comet just like how the dinosaurs disappeared but that is just one of the many theories presented. 90 percent of ocean creatures disappeared within a million years and 70 percent of land animals vanished as well. The rock that supposedly hit the earth was 12 kilometers across. Scientists have taken some samples from the certain time period of when the rock hit and found that it is extraterrestrial. They say beside the rock that hit the earth, there was tremendous volcanic eruption occurring at the same time.

Johnny Li

Outline

  1. 65 million years ago
  2. a meteor hit earth
  3. cause a chain reaction
  4. killed out most of the living animals

Critique

Opening Statement

Mass Extinction is when a whole group of species die because of some reasons. There are a total of two mass extinctions that ever happened. One of them is the Great Dying; it was when all the marine animals die out. Another one is the dinosaur and also the one we are focusing on right now. The dinosaurs first appear in the Triassic Period, they were first evolve from a crocodile like animal call the codants. In the time of Triassic, the whole was a Pangea so then they can move around easily. They dominated the earth for like about 150 million years. The extinction was 65 million years ago from now. The theory about how they extinct is when the meteor hit then they just vanish. Even though all the scientists came together with a lot of ideas but none of them is really proven right. The meteor hitting earth is clear and we all know that it got to have something to do with the extinction. After doing researching on different resources we came up with the idea of the theory of dinosaurs extinction. They extinct because of the aftermath environment being change.

Rebuttal

Evidences show that the meteor is not big enough to wipe out all the living things on earth so then it makes it impossible to believe that the meteor had kill everything. But then after the meteor hit earth, it sent million of dust in the atmosphere and that block up the sun for quite a while. The sun is a very important element for the dinosaurs because they needed heat and food. from Triassic to Cretaceous (when they extinct) the weather is very warm and tropical so then the dinosaurs are born with the mutation of resisting heat instead of retaining it. Also the dinosaur. don't have hair on their body, other mammals needed hair because it help them keep the warmth in their body so then even in the cold weather they still wouldn't be cold Although they have scales, but then it wouldn't keep them warm it is only for protection. Some of the dinosaurs are vegetarians so then when there is no more sunlight the plants can't photosynthesis. Even the strong ones will die off, so then the dinosaurs wouldn't have any more food. For the ones that j are carnivores their food (the dinosaurs that eat plants) dies off also, so even without anything happening they will just die.

Rebuttal

Although there are evidence that show an element that is only found outer space is found in a lot of places, knowing that it means that the meteor is spreading out things very efficiently and fast. But even though knowing that wouldn't help that much. That's because the element itself doesn't do any harm. There are no evidences that show the element nor the meteor is carrying anything that's harmful. Closing Statement Although we can't prove our theory is totally right but then a lot of evidences had gave us hints that can prove our theory have a big possibilities- There aren't a lot of things that can prove us wrong. The element wasn't that big of a deal anyhow.

Bich Ha Tran

Outline

  1. Mass Extinction Meteor caused dinosaur extinction
  2. It was like 12.0 earthquake
  3. The rock was 12 km across.
  4. When it hit the earth, helium from buckyball explore.
  5. buckyball has 60 carbon atoms
  6. The temperature rose up
  7. Fill with carbons Gases cover the skies
  8. Dust and aerosols were thrown in the air
  9. Sky became dark for months
  10. Block out the sun-like a nuclear war

Critique

Dinosaur extinction (Opening Statement)

  1. In Mesozoic era about 65 million years ago
  2. Cause by asteroid
  3. Like 12.0 earthquake r 12 km across
  4. Big explosion
    1. Chemicals from asteroid heated up the air formed acid rain
      1. Buckyball explore
          1. Helium gases
          2. Iridium
          3. Tektites
          4. Carbons
      2. Died because of poisoning
    2. Fill with C02 caused giant forest fires
      1. Gases, dust, smoke covered whole earth
      2. Sky was dark
      3. Block out of sunlight
        1. Without sun, plants died
        2. Without plants, plant eaters died
        3. Without plant eaters, meat eaters died
      4. Died because of starvation and fires
    3. Temperature changed
              1. Low down rapidly
              2. Cold
              3. Less oxygen
              4. Couldn't adapt so died

Summary

There were five major mass extinction events on the earth. Largest event was about 245 mya ago when continental drift brought all continents together in one whole piece. That caused the climate to change badly. It put and end of Paleozoic era. The oldest event was about 430 mya ago. It put an end of Ordovician period. It caused by an ice age when glaciers covered Africa, then South Pole. Dinosaur extinction occurred about 65 million years ago when the asteroid or comet hit the earth. The rock was about 12 km across. When it hit the earth, it was like a 12.0 earthquake and then changed the atmosphere. The asteroid carried buckyballs, which contained 60 carbon atom structures and helium-3. Scientists believe those gases caused the dinosaur extinction. Another mass extinction happened to the earth ecosystems was the destruction of the rainforest. Another extinction happened in 35 million years ago but its evidence was not clear. Scientists conclude that there are three causes of mass extinctions. First, the sea level changed or fell, reducing size of ocean where most organisms lived, caused extinction. Second, volcanic eruptions released a large amount of carbon dioxide into the air and caused extinction. Third, the sea volume rose up and established floods of anoxia water, caused extinction.

Peter Yee

Rebuttal Outline

  1. Theories: Meteors plus environment causes change in weather, animals not able to adapt, the sea level changed, and dropped to 100 feet.
    1. If the meteor were big then it wouldn't destroy anything, but change the formation Of the Earths land, the meteor was so big that it changed the Earths environment, how was the whole earth affected?
    2. How would there be change in the atmosphere, by what type of substances was carried by the meteor?
    3. Was there such substance such as acid and iridium that was carried out by the meteors to change the environment?
    4. Weather and atmosphere, but on Earth not every place climates were changing and such and not all at one time.
    5. Time and day was the key to how everything changed on Earth, some animals didn't adapt to the conditions because the climate didn't suite them.

Critique:

Summary

Mass Extinction is believed to have happened millions of years ago, before humans were shown on the face of the earth. About 360 million years ago there were living creatures on earth. Then suddenly a meteor hit the earth. The meteor was believed to have carried a poisons gas, which killed most living things. About 65 million years ago, dinosaurs extinct. Then 250 million years ago 96-percent of all living animals became extinct. 35 million years ago, when there was another mass extinction, we are not clear about what caused it. Researchers believe that another mass extinction can happen to the earth in the future because the Earth's ecosystem, especially Tropical rain forest, are being destroyed due to human activity. Fossil studies show that dinosaurs were wiped out by cataclysme events such as crash of giant meteor that hit the Earth. The extinction of dinosaurs happened extremely fast. Carbon testing was used to determine how old fossils were. Carbon is an essential component to all living organism. Meteorite, are pieces of rock from outer space that strike the Earth's surface. Meteoroids, is a meteorite before it hits the Earth surface, and Meteors are glowing fragments that burns and glows upon hitting the surface of the Earth. Finally, Researchers found out that when meteors hit the Earth, Volcanoes were active, and some even erupted, and killed a lot of animals, and plants. When the dinosaurs died it was during the Mesozoic Period. Asteroids that hit the earth changed the Earths atmosphere killing most living creatures that were around. The ultra violent lights from the explosion killed plankton and changed the environment. When we think of Asteroid's we think of it as a closing chapter in life because when asteroids hit the Earth it wipes out most of the Earths living organisms.

Lori Cheng

Mass Extinction Debate Outline

  1. Opening Statement:
    1. Theory- Meteor plus Environmental Causes
      1. Change in weather
      2. Animals not able to adapt
      3. Sea level had severe changes
          1. dropped 100 feet

Critique

Mass Extinction Debate Outline

  1. Opening Statement:
    1. Theory- Meteor plus Environmental Causes
      1. Change in weather/climate
          1. Plants found that survived from Cretaceous period
          2. Cannot tolerate freezing point temp., would instantly die
      2. Animals not able to adapt
          1. Global Warming; produced subtropical climates, more greenhouse gases
          2. Uttle no life would be able to survive near equator
          3. Same kinds of floral and fauna present at equator
      3. Sea level had severe changes
          1. Dropped 100 feet
    2. Other Facts
      1. Iridium
          1. Common in space objects; rare on Earth
          2. Siderophilic or iron loving
          3. Detected from eruptions of the volcano Kilauea in Hawaii

Summary

Mass extinctions were events in which species had been wiped off the face of the Earth. They were no longer present and the entire population was gone, never to return again. Within the last 600 million years, there were five mass extinctions. The oldest one was about 430 million years ago at the end of the Ordovician Period, which was caused by an ice age when lots of ice were trapped in the glaciers and caused the sea level to drop more than 100 feet. The shallow seas covering the continents had disappeared which led the animals to become extinct. The largest event happened about 245 million years ago. It occurred when continental drift brought all the continents together in one whole piece, causing climate deterioration. The climate now was changed; seawater froze and the sea level dropped, reducing the size of the ocean where organisms lived. About 65 million years ago, dinosaurs became extinct. No one really knows why but scientists believe that a meteor had hit Earth, causing this mass extinction. Another theory that caused these mass extinctions are this environmental catastrophe that had occurred which wiped out the entire population of species. Also an asteroid led to The Great Dying, in which volcanoes had erupted and most of the animals weren't able to adapt to the new environment so they died. There was another case in which a supemova exploded near Earth, causing deterioration of the ozone layer. Then ultra violent rays killed plankton and mollusks depended on it for food. At some sites, iridium was found in sediment layers at the boundary between the Triassic and the Jurassic period. Iridium is very rare on Earth but common in space objects. A mineral called stishorite was also discovered, where it's not on Earth but a meteorite impact sites. There are still many more theories that scientists haven't explored and hopefully, our questions about events will be answered soon.

Angel Xie

Outline

  1. Asteroid hits Earth
    1. causes superheat vapor to spread 7-10 mi
      1. Killing everything
    2. Asteroid is 10km diameter
    3. Hit Mexico
    4. Buckyballs
      1. Leftover of asteroid
      2. Made out of carbon
      3. will easily explode
    5. Sky turns dark for many months
      1. blocks out the sun
      2. causes "nuclear winter"
      3. Things that need sunlight dies
  2. If everything died in Earth and caused the dinosaur extinction, why are there still different kinds of organims alive today?
  3. Huge dinosaurs ate small animals in order to survive.
    1. small animals and their offspring were not enough to the huge dinosaurs
      1. led to dinosaurs' extinction

Summery of Mass Extinction

In the last 600 million years, there were 5 mass extinctions. The largest event about 245 million years, occurring when continental drift brought all continents together in one whole piece, causing climate deterioration. The oldest is 430 million years end of Ordovician period, caused by an ice age when glaciers covered Africa, then was the South Pole. 185 million years before decrease, mass extinction wiped out 90% of all sea creatures and 70% of land animals. Also extensive volcano activity was present, when hit, was like a 12.0 earthquake. Large extinction rate has an important influence on the evolution of life on earth- the population and repopulation of an ecological niche by species after species allows for the testing of a much wider range of survival strategies than the slower process of phyletic transformation. There are 3 cause of mass extinction. 1) The drop in sea level around much of Pangaea. 2) Volcanic eruptions and release into the atmosphere of large volume of carbon dioxide. 3) Rise sea level, subsequent and floods of anoxia waters.

Rowena Kumar

Closing Statement Outline

  1. Meteor and other environmental causes
  2. Weather changes
    1. too hot
    2. too cold
  3. Animals not being able to adapt
    1. evolution
    2. evolution of plants
  4. Changes in the sea level
    1. 100 feet

Critique

Outline

  1. Concluding Statement
    1. Theory - Meteor and other environmental causes
      1. Change in weather or climate
          1. Plant survived Cretaceous period
          2. Can't stand freezing temperature, would instantly die
      2. Animals adaption
          1. Global warming
            1. more greenhouse gases
            2. subtropical climate
          2. Little or no life able to survive near equator
            1. floral and fauna present at equator
    2. Other facts
      1. Iridium
          1. Found in space; rare on earth
          2. Siderophilic
          3. Eruption in volcano
            1. Kilauea Hawaii

Summary

There had been life on earth as we know it for 4 billion years, during the last 600 million years there has been about five mass extinctions. The most popular extinction was the extinction of the dinosaurs. That happened 200 mya during the Mesozoic era. It is said that a meteor called "buckyballs" about 12 kilometers and made of helium and carbon, collided with the earth changing the environment. This caused volcanic eruptions and changes in sea level. There was also 12.0 earthquakes and vital atmospheric gasses causing much destruction. The collision cause some of the sea water to freeze and dramatically drop, making it hard for many sea creatures to live. The animals that couldn't adapt to the dramatic changes simply, died. Scientist believe in the theory of the meteor because there was an element called Iridium found at most sites. Iridium was rarely found on earth and was mostly found in space objects. Also a mineral called stishorite was found no where else on earth, but at meteor sites. Another mass extinction happened in 245 mya during Continental drift causing climate deterioration. In 430 mya, the ice age kill off many species due to the 100 feet drop in sea level and animals getting trapped in glaciers. There was also said to be a supernova too close to earth that destroyed the ozone layer causing ultra violent rays killing many species. There were also natural cause such as evolving into more complex creatures. These are a few explanations of the mass extinctions.

Naeemah Hunt

Outline

  1. Metor hit Earth
    1. Debris spread by wind
    2. covered light
      1. Plants died
        1. Brought down food chain

Summary on Extinction

Extinction took many lives of organisms on earth. The organisms on earth became extinct about 440 mya. The other group of organisms became extinct about 360 mya. The third greatest extinction was over plants, in 100 mya.

Pre-Cambrian era was about 3.500-600 mya. The first fossils was bacteria then origin of O2 by photosynthesis in 2500 mya. In about 1.500 was the first eukaryotes then diverse to Protists in 1,000 mya, and multicellular experimentation.

Cambrian period was in 600-500 mya. The origin of all major animals phyla in 500 mya.

The Ordovician period was about 500-400 mya. The animals were vertebrates and jawless fish in 500-470 mya. The first mass extinction in 420-410 mya.
In Devonian period, bone fishes became abundant in 390 mya. The second mass extinction 360 mya.

Triassic period third mass extinction in 230-220 mya. Jurassic period fourth mass extinction in 200 mya. Tertiary period fifth mass extinction in 70-60 mya. These extinctions were caused by land slides, glaciation, and volcanic eruptions.

Maria Silao

Rebuttal/ Refute Outline

  1. Opposing teams theory
    1. Meteor hit earth creating chain reactions.
    2. Chain reactions like volcanic eruptions on the other side of the earth
    3. Debris also covered the earth.
  2. Rebuttal
    1. Their theory is just part of what caused mass extinctions.
    2. The main cause was the meteor and the debris.
    3. Meteor hit earth, created a big cloud of debris, which covered sunlight.
    4. Debris spread by the wind.
    5. Caused plants to die out
    6. Animals that were herbivores starved and also die out.
    7. Sooner or later the whole destroyed.
  3. Refute the rebuttal
    1. Our theory is enough to cause the mass extinction because it had a drastic affect on the food chain.
    2. Without sunlight herbivores die
    3. Then carnivores because there's no meat left to eat
    4. Last the omnivores die out because no plant and no meat left to feed on

Critique

Summary

In Earth's history the five largest mass extinctions have devastated our planet. The first began with the drop in sea level around much of Pangea. This led to a loss of habitat and changes within the weather. Then came volcanic eruptions, which released large volumes of carbon dioxide that also changed the weather. Because of these occurrences it led to one of the largest mass extinction's in the Permian era. The first mass extinction happened about 440 million years ago in the Ordovician period. When this occurred the first early vertebrates were starting to evolve with jawless fishes, and animal diversity too. The second mass extinction happened within the Devonian period about 360 million years ago. By this time bony fished became abundant. Then when the fourth hit 200 million years ago during the Jurassic period it whiped out almost the entire species of dinosaurs. Then the fifth mass extinction took place during the Tertiary period between 70-60 million years ago. These were the five mass extinctions that happened within the Precambrian era. These mass extinctions led to many questions of how and why did they happen. Until this day it is still being debated on. One theory was glaciations, which caused rapid warming, and severe climatic changes. Another theory that paleontologists believe in is volcanic eruptions. They believe that these volcanic eruptions sent large loads of sulphates into the atmosphere causing large ash clouds around the world. Unfortunately these are only theories to help explain the causes of these events.

Danny Yu

Closing Statement outline

  1. The meteor caused the dinosaur to become extinct.
  2. The dust particle on the meteor broke off and spread throughout earth.
  3. The dust particle causes the earth atmosphere to change.
  4. It began to rain and the weather got too cold that the dinosaur just simply froze to death - The other side say that the volcanoes causes dinosaur to extinct
  5. Volcano did not cause the extinction because if it did wouldn't we be dead since a lot of volcanoes eruption had occur.

Critique

Helen: Good head start but you can also talk about the buckybalt hitting on earth and exploded and so on. Wardah: Nice start but include evidenc Jing: detail the evidence. good job on starting Maria: has the right information but you can get more than just that. Pei: Good details, you also can get more information for the internet.

Closing Statement

As the other side pointed out that volcanoes causes the dinosaurs to become extinct. Then why are there no new evidence claiming that every time when a volcano erupts, species will go extinct. What I am trying to say is that if a volcano is able to cause a whole entire species to extinct, then if another volcano eruption occurs than would it mean that another species would become extinct. As our side pointed out it was the meteor that causes the dinosaur to become extinct. When the meteor hit Earth, the little dust particle on the meteor broke off and spread throughout Earth, and the dust particle causes the atmosphere and climate to change. More rain began to fall and the weather became colder. It got too cold that the dinosaur simply just froze to death. I will leave you guys one question to think about, hwy are people so afraid of a meteor hitting Earth?

Summary on Mass Extinction

Since Earth was here about 4.6 billion years ago, there had been five mass extinction that had occurred. Mass extinction is when an event that caused a large portion of organism on earth to became extinct. Before all those mass extinction happened, in the Precambrian era 3,500-600 million years ago there was an early fossil that show bacteria, and origin of oxygen by photosynthesis. There is also eukaryotes that is diverse protests that is multicellular. In the Cambrian period around 600-500 mya there is origin of all major animal phyla. In the Ordovician period around 500-400 mya there was animal that is diverse abounds and a lot of early vertebrates and jawless fish.

The first Mass Extinction happened 440 mya during the Silurian period where the plants, arthropods, and fungi invaded land and jawed fishes appeared. The second one is 360 mya during the Devonian period where bony fishes become abundant. The third one happened in 230-220 mya in the Permian period-Triassic period. The fourth one happened in the Jurassic period around 200 mya and the fifth one happened in the Tertiary period between 70-60 mya.

During the Permian period around 268-258 mya a buckyballs survived the trip to Earth inside a giant asteroid or comet that exploded and killed all the dinosaurs, it was more forceful than the largest earthquake about 185 mya. About 90% sea creatures and 70% land animals died. The species that is bigger than a dog like fusulinid Foraminiferas, trilobites, rugose, tabulate corals, blastoids, acanthodians, placoderms, and pelycosaurs did not survived. Only the smaller one survived like crocodiles, lizards, turtles, and snakes this made bird and mammals the dominant on land. Before 250 mya you could walk from Madagascar to anywhere in the world because the planet's landmasses were united in the super continent Pangaea. But as time went by it would slowly change which caused the Mass Extinction.

Some causes in the Permian period were that there was a global widespread cooling and worldwide lowering of sea level. Another cause is that the reduction of shallows continental shelves due to the formation of the continent Pangaea, which made it easier for extinction. But this did not happen until the late Permian. Another cause is that in the north and south poles that the rapid warming and serene climatic fluctuations produced by concurrent glaciation. There is also evident that show some cooling and drying in the temperature zone which cause the dune sands and evaporates while the polar zones, glaciation was prominent. The last cause is that volcanic eruption which made a quantity of sulfates and an explosive that made a large ash clouds around the world. This combination made a lower global climatic condition.

Pei Xian Yu

Opening Statement outline:

  1. Introduction of the Dinosaur volcano extinction
    1. The Dinosaur died by the volcano.
  2. The Dinosaur disappearance because .............
    1. Cosmic radiation from a nearby exploding supernova star killed them.
    2. Acid rain from volcano activity was responsible.
    3. Continental drift altered the climate.
    4. Disease ravaged dinosaur populations.
    5. Small mammals appeared that fed on dinosaur eggs.
    6. Some of the volcano were erupt
  3. The Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago.
  4. They live in the rainforest.

Critique:

Summary

Extinction is portions of organisms on earth became extinct about 440 million years age. Around 250 million years ago, at the end of the Permian period, life on the earth almost disappeared completely in the most devastating mass extinction of all time. The first began with the drop in sea level around much of Pangea, which led to a loss of habitat, climatic instability and the elimination of many narrowly distributed species. As the oceanic regression continued, phase two began, with volcanic eruption and the release into the atmosphere of large volumes of carbon dioxide, which increased climatic instability and facilitated ecological collapse. The rise in sea level and subsequent floods of possibly anoxic waters destroyed near-shore terrestrial habitats. After other mass extinction, life began biological communities were so severely disrupted. The few remaining species tended to be abundant and widespread, with clams thriving in the ocean and a retile-like creature the most common vertebrate on land. About 25 million years later, other organisms began to emerge, with more mobile creatures dominating in the sea, and a shift in insect, from those with wings fixed in flight position, to those that could fold their wings. Before the dinosaurs went extinct, an even greater catastrophe killed 70 percent of land creature and 90 percent of sea life. Now scientists studying sediment from that time, 250 million years snuffing out the trilobites, sea corals, and most other living things.

Wardah Asaba

Rebuttal Outline:

  1. What's Wrong with Their theory
  2. THEORY:
    1. Meteorites- that crash
      1. The meteorite wasn't the only thing b\c volcano had something do with it and other stuff.
  3. Evidence:
    1. Found out that in the Permian rocks signatures of extraterrestrial molecules that most likely arrived on an asteroid or a comet.
    2. There were pre-historic puzzle that are caged-like carbon molecules called fulterenes retrieved from Japan

Critique:

Rebuttal Outline:

  1. What's Wrong with Their theory
    1. THEORY: Meteorites- that crash
      1. The meteorite wasn't the only thing b\c volcano had something do with it and other stuff.
    2. Evidence:
      1. Found out that in the Permian rocks signatures of extraterrestrial molecules that most likely arrived on an asteroid or a comet.
        1. There were pre-historic puzzle that are caged-like carbon molecules called fulterenes retrieved from Japan
  2. Theories:
    1. Big volcanoes erupts
      1. and the dark black ash smokes around the air and the dinosaurs inhale it which got them killed
  3. Evidence:
    1. Found dried sediments of ash rock
  4. Theory:
    1. Big asteroids hit in different place = creating a big spot around different areas
  5. Evidence:
    1. Found craters in different parts on Earth

Summary

Mass Extinction Over million years ago around the years of 286-248 it was Permian period time. The Terristrial faunal diversification happened in the Permian and about 90 or 95 percent of species became extinction was one of the well known one in earth history. Some terristrial victims such as the fusulinid foranifera, trilobites, rugose and tabulate corals, blastoids, acanthodians, placoderms, and pelycosaurs, which didn't survive in the boundary of Permian. The reason why Permian Extinction might of occured was because of the Formation in Pangea, glaciation and of volcanic eruption. Although the formation Pange, the reduction in oceanic continental shelves, and so many destruction happened. In the evidence of Glaciation made a big impact by strange weather schedule and the view of evidence of volcanic actions suggests that maybe huge amounts of volcanic were large in quantity of sulphates into the atmosphere and large clouds of ash. The extinct went by pretty fast though. Another theory that scientists made were that maybe a big asteroid hit the planet while the dinosaurs used to live there. Maybe a food chain connection had somethinfg to do with the extinction of dinosaurs, who knows its a mystery!

Helen Tran

  1. The small meteor and other things such as volcanoes caused all dinosaurs to extinct:
    1. There's evidence that there are meteor rocks all over the place instead of having the whole meteor landed in one place
    2. When the meteor hit earth, it caused a cloud cover causing a new atmosphere for the dinosaurs
      1. Carbon dioxide increased
      2. The dinosaurs might not be able to adapt to the new atmosphere
    3. When meteor landed on earth it also caused volcanic eruption on the other side of earth
      1. Change in temperature
    4. Dinosaurs lived in open forests near volcanoes
    5. Permian Period286-248 mya
      1. 90-95% of marine species became extinct in the Permian
      2. Causes of the Permian Extinction:
        1. Formation of Pangea
        2. drop of shallow continental shelves caused due to formation of super-continent pangea
        3. Glaciation- rapid warm and severe climatic fluctuations caused by concurrent glaciations event at north and south pole
          1. Temperate zoneshas evidence of significant cooling and drying in sedimentological record
          2. Shown by thick sequences of dune sands and evaporites
          3. caused seer climatic fluctuation around globe, fund by sediment record
        4. Volcanic eruptions- sent lots of sulphates into atmosphere
          1. China- Support
        5. Cooling and lowering in sea level

Critique

Notes

  1. Spread by wind
  2. Break the food chain
  3. Meteor is not that strong to destroy the whole group of dinosaurs

Summary on Mass extinction

Before extinction of human there was dinosaurs and many other organisms that was wiped out throughout some period of time, which is consider mass extinction. For example dinosaurs can be consider a mass extinction because dinosaur eventually became extinct. Large portions of organisms on earth became extinct about 440 million years ago (mya). Then another one about 360 million years ago and the third extinction was about 100 million years ago yet the greatest extinction literally devastated over planet. About 250 million years ago majority of the creatures was vanished caused by the impact of a comet or asteroid similar to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Within the comet or asteroid contain buckyballs, which survived its trip on earth causing a great explosion and killed the creatures. The dinosaurs' extinction was about 185 years ago million years ago during the cretaceous period. One of the biggest extinction was the Permian period, which was 286-248 million years ago. During the Permian period it caused 90-95% of marine species to become extinct in the Permian. It was the largest mass extinction ever and the theory to explain the extinction was the reduction of shallow continental shelves due to the super-continent Pangaea, result in environmental struggle for space. Another reason would be glaciations event outcome a rapid warming and severe climatic fluctuations, which was made by concurrent glaciation events on the north and south poles. There is evidence showing cooling and drying shown by thick sequences of dune sands and evaporates while in the polar zones. Next was the final suggestion was the last on that paleontologist had was volcanic eruptions, it was large and sent an amount of sulfates into the atmosphere. The explosive which mite have caused and produced large ash clouds around the world outcome that it may have lower the global climatic conditions. During the cataclysmic crash that might have set off violent volcanic eruptions that covered the land in hot lave, thickened the atmosphere filled with deadly carbon dioxide and caused sea levels to rise and down the shored of a vast super continent. As a result 90 percent of life in oceans disappeared and at least 70 percent of the vertebrate land animals disappeared, which scientist called it "The Great Dying." The first mass extinction was 440 million years ago, the Silurian period (between 400-440 mya) had some plants, arthropods, and fungi invaded lands and jawed fishes to appear. During the second mass extinction, Devonian period (400-360 mya) and bony fishes to be abundant. Third mass extinction, the Permian period (between 230-220), fourth mass extinction, Jurassic period, 200 mya, and 5th, the Tertiary period, between 70-60 mya. Overall, mass extinction had affected many creatures to extinct in our world.

Jing Chen

Closing Statement Outline

  1. Meteor crushed on the volcano
  2. when meteor hit on earth, it caused the cloud cover that creating a new atmosphere, less oxygen

Critique

Mass Extinction Summary

Mass extinction is an episode during which large numbers of species become extinct. There were few extinctions happened before the dinosaurs extinct. Before land exists, there was no land. Every organism lived in the seas or ocean. Even before apes exist, there were few extinction happened already. Mass extinctions have a major impact. The first extinction was about 440 million years ago, a large portion of organisms extinct. Then about 360 million years ago, almost the same thing happened. Then a hundred million years later, the extinction was greater then the other ones, about 96 percent of the animals extinct. Around 35 million years later, extinction happened on earth. The last extinction was about 65 million years ago, that included the dinosaurs.

The reason why the dinosaurs were extinct is the buckybalts survived trip to earth inside a giant asteroid or the comet that explored and killed them. The large catastrophe killed 70 percent of the land creatures and 90 percent of the sea animal. The primary marine animals included blastoids, rugose, placoderms, tabulate corals, etc. During the Permian period, ninety to ninety-five percent of marine species became extinct. This was the largest extinction even happened. There were many theories explain the reason of the extinction. There were speculated causes of the extinction, some said it was by a global widespread cooling that lower the sea level, and the formation of Pangea, and the glaciations, and maybe the volcano eruption.

Evolution of Hominids

Tyrone Corley

Opening statement Outline

  1. Homo. Sapiens evolved from homo. Erectus in Africa and migrated to Europe and China. Our evidence shows that the earliest man was found about 1.75 million years ago.

Critiques:

Cherry Mendoza

Hominid Debate Outline

  1. Refute the rebutal:
    1. Homo Sapiens did evolve from Homo Erectus in Africa. Fossils were mainly found in South Africa giving evidence that it was possible that Homo Sapiens and Homo Erectus did started off in South Africa, therefore Homo Sapiens and Homo Erectus did not evolve at the same time in other places such as Eurasia.
  2. Closing Statement:

Critiques

Hominids Outline

  1. Notes from Biology; Principles & Explorations:
    1. Section Objectives:
      1. State the genus and place of origin of the first hominids.
      2. Contrast apes with Australopithecine.
      3. Describe several australopithecine species.
      4. Describe the evidence that indicates human ancestors walked upright before their brains enlarged.
    2. Hominid: member of the family Hominidae of the order Primates; characterized by opposable thumbs, no tail, longer lower limbs, and erect bipedalism. (299)
    3. Earliest known direct ancestors belong to the genus Australopithecus.
    4. Two characteristics that were early milestones on the path leading to the evolution of humans: bipedal (they were able to walk upright on two legs) and brain size (most australopithecines had large brains- with a greater volume, relative to body weight, than apes had.)
    5. Figure 14-8 (301) "Because of an incomplete fossil record, scientists differ in their interpretations of how australopithecines evolved. Some researchers would put A. robustus on one branch while others would put the same species on another branch."
    6. All the Australopithecine species were bipedal.
    7. Homo sapiens are the latest
    8. Section Review questions:
      1. Where did the first hominids evolve, and what is their genus name?
      2. How do the skeletal features of an ape and an australopithecine differ?
      3. Explain why the discovery of "Lucy" was a significant scientific accomplishment.
    9. Evolution of hominids begin about 80 million years ago during the age of dinosaurs.
    10. Ability to manipulate home central role ot increased intelligence in primates
    11. Improved sense of sight was accompanied by the development of a larger, more complex brain.
    12. US berkeley anthropologist has discovered the fossilized remains of what they believe in humanity's earliest known ancestor, a creature that walked the wooded highlands of East Africa nearly 6 million years ago.
    13. Textbook page 301, figure 14-7, 14-8
    14. A. afarensis individuals reprsent the true base of the human family tree
  2. How old is Man?????

Debate Outline on Hominid (Human Evolution)

  1. Rebutal:
    1. Just because other fossils were found in other places other than Africa, it doesn't mean that it actually evolved there during the same time as the others did. It could've started off with Africa then after it have evolved it probably spread out to other places like Eurasia and etc.
      1. The record of Human Evolution"; section about "Prehuman Primates"
        1. In the time period between 30 and 15 million years ago, the ancestral apes and monkeys diverged in their basic adaptations. Between 15 and 8 million years ago, one group of so-called `ground apes' spread outward from Africa into the open plains and less dense forests of Eurasia...
          1. So, if 15 and 8 million years ago, the group "ground apes just started to spread outward from Africa it is possible that it did started off from Africa first.
      2. "The record of Human Evolution"; section about "Prehuman Primates":
        1. Similar fossils are known in Africa that may have been close to the common ancestry of the chimpanzee, gorilla, and humans." -If the ancestors of chimpanzee, gorilla, and humans were found in Africa, then there are possibilities that the line of humans did started off in Africa and not in other places of the world.
    2. "The record of Human Evolution"; section about "The Emergence of Homo"
      1. It appears that H. habilis of eastern and southern Africa was well on the way toward modern humanity."
      2. ...earliest known representatives appeared in East Africa about 1.75 million years ago; they were descendants of H. habiiis..."
      3. ...the species H. erectus seems to show little definite evolutionary change, suggesting that at was well adapted to the range of environments in which it lived."
  2. Closing:
    1. I still think that it is possible for H. sapiens and H. erectus to have originally came from Africa and probably as the thick leaves in the forest decreased as the climate change in Africa, then that's probably about the time they started to move out and spread throughout Eurasia and Asia and all those other places they were found in.

Summary For Hominid Notes

Us humans are members of the older primates, along with the apes, monkeys, and prosimians. The early mammals evolved into primates and humans evolved from non-human primates. As evolution affects the human line, you can see that the first humans became bipedal, the formation of their skeletons were changing, spinal cord extended, and brains got bigger therefore they were becoming more smarter. Human evolution goes far back in time, and scientists are still trying to get it together on how far back does the lineage really goes and what the exact lineage really is. Primates such as chimpanzees and gorillas lived about eight to ten million years ago, while early humans such as Australopithecus that found to have lived in Africa are about four to two million years old. Scientists said that humanity's earliest known ancestor lived in East Africa about six million years ago. It was said that the human's earliest known ancestors belongs to the genus Australopithecus. Australopithecines and humans are classified as hominids. The oldest species was called Australopithecus afarensis which was known to be 3.9 million years old. In 1994 another discovery was made. The pre-human fossil, Ardipithecus ramidus, was then the oldest known at that time (4.4 million years). On January 2001, an older fossil was found by a French team in Kenya. The fossil was named Orrorin tugenensis and it was nicknamed as the "Millennium Man," it was found to be 6 million years old. The only problem with this fossil is that the whole possibility of Orrorin tugenensis as being the earliest hominid was questioned by a scientist on whether that it could possibly be "a common ancestor, or it gave rise only to the chimpanzee lineage, or it went extinct around 6 million years ago without giving rise to any species." Anyhow, based on the book Biology. Principles & Explorations, by Johnson and Raven, "We are the third and only surviving species of humans, members of the genus Homo. The first humans evolved from australopithecine ancestors about 2 million years ago. They were replaced in turn by a second species of human that moved out of Africa and spread across the Earth.

David Liang

Outline

  1. opening statement:
    1. yes what a said has some truth, but I believe that man had evolve from all over the world at the same time.
    2. Lucy the fossils ethnpio which where it had lived. and the peking man which were found in china, which this show that man evlove from all over the world at the same time, and not just in Africa

Critique

Outline for Hominid

  1. Opening Statement:
  2. Theory:
    1. The evolution of Hominid evolving from apes took place not just in Africa but man had evolved all over the world at the same time.
  3. Evidence #1: Lucy the fossil found in ethnpio which it was 3.5 million year old an Australopithecus
  4. Evidence #2: The fossil Peking Man was found in China which it was a H. erectus which it was believe is 1.25 million year old.
  5. Evidence #3: Hominid evolves from evolving all over the world leading different skin color and race.
  6. Evidence #4: The Earliest Human fossil found by UC Berkeley anthropologist was dated 6 million years ago found in East Africa.
  7. Refusal Rebuttal:
    1. no no no what a said is so not true, a see the peking man were found in china which it was 1.25 million years old and there were many fossils of Early Human found in Europe and not just in Africa. The Neanderthals lived in Europe.

Critique

Summary of Hominid

The evolution of hominids started around 80 million year ago during the age of dinosaurs. Scientist believes that we Homo sapiens had evolved from primates. Australopithecine has two characteristics that were early clue on the path of leading to the evolution of humans. They were able to walk upright on two legs. The first africanus skull what found by an anatomy called Raymond Dart. They skull was very well preserved. Before Raymond Dark found the first australopithecine fossil many Scientists believe hominids were only around 500,000 years old. But now they believe that they are 2.8 million years old. Afarensis is really human like and apes like, so there is a evolutionary link between human and apes. Many were believe evolution of Homo sapiens did evolve from apes. Then later evident were found, they found another species called robustus which leads closer to Homo sapiens. Then they found the third species called boisei, which it has been the mostly likely to Homo sapiens. Scientist believes that boisei was around 2 million years old. Scientist always wonders how old is man? Then Donald Johanson went to search for early human fossils, then he found Lucy, one of the first preserved skeleton of a prehuman hominid ever discovered. The skeleton was believed 3.2million years old. Was our early human really 3.2 years old? No it is not, The UC Berkeley anthropologist has discovered the fossilized remains of what they believe in humanity's earliest known ancestor. They believe that it walked the wooded highlands of East Africa. They fossils was 6 million years old, which they believe is the oldest ancestor of Humans.

Kura Cohen

Outline

  1. Rebuttal
    1. Actually the Homo Sapiens lived mostly all over the world. Lucy lived in Ethiopia.
    2. Homo Habilis lived in eastern and southern Africa. Homo Erectus lived in East
    3. Africa, southern Asia, and China. Homo Sapien lived in Europe and Asia. And the
        1. Peking Man, Homo Sapien Neanderthalensis, and the Rhodesian Man all lived around the same time in different areas. The Peking Man lived in China. The Homo Sapien
    4. Neanderthalensis lived in Europe. The Rhodesian Man lived in Morocco and South Africa.
  2. Closing
    1. I would like to say I understand what you are saying how it seems that the Homo sapiens evolved to live all over the world. But what about the Peking Man, Homo sapien neanderthalensis, and Rhodesian Man that lived at the same time in different areas?

Critiques

Tyrone: good job

Cherry: Very nice... you have a lot of info and evidence right there. Well, I don't see nothing wrong so yeah...

David: very nice argument a have lots of evident, argument more more more!!!!!!

Diana Merino

Opening Statement Outline

  1. We are trying to prove against the other group that the hominids came from Africa and that their theory is wrong. Our theory is that the Hominids first originated from Africa than they spread to through out other places. We have search a lot of information and we have found that most of the apes fossils that they have found were in Africa and they also have been the oldest

Critiques:

Opening Statement

We are traying to prove that the hominids came from Africa and -t#att ' . Our theory is that the Hominids first originated from Africa and that then they spread through out other places. We have search a lot of information and we have found that most of the ape fossils that they have found were in Africa and they also have been the oldest. h et of the fossils that they have found have been discover in many parts of Africa some were found in Ethiopia and they were 1 million years old, another one was found in Kenya it was 6 million years old and it was a kid. Something else is tha a 1.5 to 2million years old Hominid fossils was found in Africa. Some of the Homo sapiens spread from Africa 150,000 and 100,000 years ago, that is why they have found fossils in other places because they had spread from Africa many years ago. Some of the fossils that they have found in other places besides Africa were not that old, so our theory is right for us, sense they have found the oldest and the most fossils in Africa.

Evolution of Hominids Summary

The primate evolution began about 80 Million years ago during the age of the dinosaurs. Some of the first primates evolve 6o million years ago. Their have been many fossils found in many places from different places. Some fossils show the age they show that 38 million years ago prosimians, which means (before ape) were common found in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Few prosimians have survive today which are little monkey's that have the head as the size of a house cat. One of the best fossils that they found was Lucy a 25 year old adult female, 40 percent of her body was found and their they study more on how their body was almost the same as ours. The fossils evidence show that humans evolve from the evolutionary line that gave "rise to apes." Apes evolve from the old world prosimian's ancestors apes included Giddons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and bonobos. The first Erectus was discovered in 1891, By Dutch Physician near the village of Trinic on a island. When they first evolve they had two changes, it was that they develop with grasping fingers and toes and also the position of the eyes in the primates. The skull were particular vanabie as evidence for the evolution of the Hominid brain. The mans that study about how our body evolve also discover that our DNA is almost similar to some of the apes so that shows a lot of informational. They have also found that many parts of the apes body is similar to ours, the shape of our head has been the same from different apes and also the bone structure the only differences is that our head is a little bigger. Some of the first apes had the smallest brain and heads. The bones in the body were almost the same two, one of the differences is that wild they were evolving they were walking straighter. some of the first apes use to walk with their nucleus but as they were evolving they started walking more straight, they also started evolving in their way of life and the were evolving their way of thinking.

Jessica Ramos

Only in Africa Outline

  1. Rebuttal:
    1. Opponent's theory:
      1. Hominids first evolved in different places such as Asia, Europe, Rhodesia and Africa.
    2. The Mitochondrial states that home sapiens populations migrated from Africa between 100,000-200,000 years ago. Then replaced the Homo erectus population wherever they went.
    3. The first modern human being was discovered in border cave in about 90,000 million years ago. Fossil fragments suggest that they emerged about 130 million years ago. Modern humans moved 70,000- 40,000 years ago in Eurpoe.
    4. The Mitochondrial Eve theory claims Homo sapien populations migrated from Africa between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago and replaced Homo erectus populations wherever they went in 1971 Garniss Curtis analyzed potassium found m a skull of a child from Mojokerto and observed how much had changed into argon. He came up with a very old date of about 1.9 million years ago, almost a million years older than expects (Cartmill, 1997). In 1992, Curtis and Carl Swisher again dated minerals from the skull to be 1.8 million years old (Shreeve, 1994). These dates show Homo erectus was in Java at the same time it was appearing in Africa. A conflict is found with the single origin theory because Homo erectus fossils were not found in Africa before they were found in Java. It also conflicts with the mufti-regional theory because even if Homo erectus evolved between Africa. and Java before spreading to either place, there are no earlier fossils found outside Africa (Cartmill, 1997).
  2. The oldest known fossils of modern human beings were discovered at Border Cave nor South Africa which date to about 90,000 years ago, although fossil fragments suggest they may have emerged about 130,000 years ago. Early modern humans moved into North Africa between 70,000 and 40,000 years ago then into Europe 35,000 years ago at the latest

Dennis Lim

Only in Africa Outline

  1. Opponent's rebuttal:
    1. Our opponents are trying to prove that hominids originated in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Rhodesian and not just Africa.
  2. Our rebuttal:
    1. Our theory is that hominids evolved in Africa first then migrated to other regions of the world.
  3. My supporting evidences:
    1. The discovery that mtDNA in sub-Saharan African populations shows greater variation than the mtDNA in other populations around the world.
    2. Researchers surveyed 100 polymorphisms in the nuclear DNA of 5 different populations. DNA was taken from African pygmies, other Africans, Chinese, Melanesians, and Europeans. They found that the polymorphisms occurred most frequently in the DNA of the Africans, indicating more genetic variation.
    3. In a study by Wilson and Cann (1992), they constructed a genealogical tree made up of 182 different types of mtDNA from 241 different individuals. The mtDNAs that were alike were found in persons from the same continent and who lived within 100 miles of each other. Two main branches were found and both led back to Africa. The single origin theory was also supported by the results of Wilson and Cann's study.

Critique:

Evolution of Homonids Summary

There has been many theory about human evolution and how we are here today. Some people with no scientific intelligence say that we hatched from an egg and some people with more intelligence say we evolved from a ape or a gorilla. Through current studies, we can say that they are the closest to being right because human and many apes have similar DMA structures. Also, fossil evidence shows that evolutionary like "diornal", gave "rise to apes". Hominids evolved into regional variants that are sometimes treated as different species: There are two changes that occurred during human evolution: the development of grasping limbs, and the position of the eyes in the primate. During the evolution of hominids, there have been different classifications of hominids, Australopithecus (5,000,000 -1,000,000 BC), Homo Habilis (2,200,000 1,600,000 BC), Homo Erectus (1,600,000- 500,000 BC), Home Saipiens (500,000 80,000 BC), Homo Neanderthalensis (100,000 - 33,000 BC), and Homo Saipiens Sapiens (125,000 - Today). A 40% fossil of a 25 years old Australopithecus named Lucy was found. In 1891, the first fossil of a Homo Erectus was discovered. It was found by a Dutch physician named Eugene Dubois, near the village of Trinicon, the island of Java. A new fossil was found in Indonesia. The skull's feature has both the feature of a Homo Sapien and a Homo Erectus. It was named "Madeliene" and it had a capacity for a language close to modern humans. Human skulls are valuable because it can help determine the evolution of the Hominid's brain. Basically human fossil remains are very precious. Especially complete skeletons because they are so rare and hard to find.

Reggie Moore

Closing Statement Outline

  1. African Origins of Hominids
    1. Intro:
      1. Where did Homo erectus originate? Homo erectus was the second specie's of human to live on Earth. It evolved in Africa about 1.5 million years ago. In 1976 a complete and evolved Homo erectus skull that is 1.5 million years older that Java and Peking man finds it was discovered in East Africa. Homo erectus species was very innovative during that time period. It marked the critical beginning of a great human specimen Homo erectus quickly grew over time in Africa. Its life style lived with many different groups with about 20 or more people in caves. In order to survive they had to hunt large animals by butchering animals with certain bone tools. Homo erectus survived over one million years longer than any other species of that genus. These other human and their anatomy disappeared in Africa approximately 500,000 years ago. Homo erectus was without a shadow of a doubt the outspoken ancestor of our species Homo sapiens.

Critique

Yan Jun Lu

Outline

  1. Opening Statement
    1. Long time ago, there were apes
    2. lived in this world before human
    3. Human are from many countries
      1. Asia, Africa, Europe
    4. Not only in Africa
      1. We can tell that we are not from one ancestor.
      2. That's why it made up our skin color different
      3. and other different traits too

Jeffrey Cheng

Outline for the debate

  1. Determine Roles
    1. Each person, write an outline that reflects what you will say.

Critique

Outline for Debate

  1. Determine Roles
    1. Jeffrey (Opening Statement)
    2. Jackie (Rebuttal (Answer Their Rebuttal)
    3. Robert (What is Wrong with their theory)
    4. Yun Jun (Closing Statement)
  2. Our theory: Hominids Originated in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Rhodesian, Not just Africa.
  3. Rebuttal (what's wrong with their theory)
    1. Our Opponent is going to prove why Hominids Originated from Africa, but their theory cannot prove that Hominid's actually originated from Africa because of the founding of Lucy a female fossil that was found.
  4. Rebuttal (Answer their Rebuttal)
    1. The modern Homo sapiens first appeared about 120,000 years ago. Their theory is that human evolution were first originated in Africa, which is actually wrong because I have an article with actual proof that hominids did not originated from Africa.

Evolution Summary

The first Primate evolved 60mya, but the first Primate evolution began in the 80 (mya) during the age of the dinosaurs. Most of the fossils were found in Africa and Asia but never North America or South America. Scientist could tell that how ape's evolved by reading their DNA, then Scientist compared DNA from a human and an ape, which were similar. Hominids however are remained really precious, because complete skeletons are extraordinary rare. Hominids Evolved into regional variants that are sometimes treated as different species. Skulls were particularly valuable as evidence for the evolution of the Hominid brain. New fossils were found in Indonesia, the fossil's skull has both features of a Homo Sapiens & Homo Erectus. "Madeline" had a capacity for language close to that of modern humans. A partial face was found in Atapuerca in Spain, it was believed to die between the ages 10-11.5 years old. The fossil was about 780,000 years old. A famous skeleton had to be Lucy a 25yr old female. About 40% of her skeleton was found. Dutch Physician discovered 1 1st Homo erectus in 1891. Eugene Dubois near the village of Trinilon the island of Java. From the time that gave "Rise To Apes" apes evolved from old world Prosimian ancestors about 30million years ago, modern apes including Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Bonbons. A Homo erectus fossil name Nanjing was found in China.

Jacky Lao

Outline

  1. They prove that the Africa is the only place have ancestor
  2. But we know that in Asia, Europe, they also have the fossil
    1. That the time in near the Africa's fossils.
  3. Africa isn't only place have Hominids.
  4. When
    1. 90,000 year ago
  5. They may be the same time
  6. Aren't the hominids in Africa move to other continents
    1. Asia and Europe

Summary of the Evolution Hominids

Hominids Fossil, the most important about the evolution of the humans, but it was so difficult to find a complete fossil, because it's so easy to broken, also some of the part are already lost or disappear by the corrosion. We can find this kind of the fossil in the Asia, America and Spain. Why did the fossil important for human? Because it tell us to know when did the beginning of the human, and how was their trait, it was so important to figure out the mystery part of the human's evolution.

The first primate evolution began about 80 MYA, which was after the age of the dinosaur; the first primate is about 60 MYA. When that time, they have two changes, the fist time was they developed the finger and toes; the second one was their eye's position became like the human. After that, we find the fossil about 38 MYA, which was the prosimian, the word that means, "ape" in English. We can find it in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa.

In 36 MYA, the primates became revolution, and it change to be "diurnal" ape, and they became like human, active at day and slept at night. When this time fossils, we just find it only in Africa and Asia. After that, the Ape became evolution to many animals like Gibbons, gorillas and chimpanzees. The biologist believes that human are changes by monkey because the DNA of the human and Ape are similar. They can use the animals DNA to figure out which animals was the youngest to change human, which one was the oldest one.

We can learn that everything was converting by simple cell, so I have an idea about the human evolution. Sometimes people saw someone face like the ape, because their DNA has some of the Ape, so they look like the monkey. But the most important thing was: Did the human are the last evolution of Hominids? No really, because time was changing, the DNA of the human body also cans evolution. May be many years later, The human will be the history, and the human will evolution to be a higher creature in the Earth.

Calvin Yao

Opening Statement Outline

  1. History of emergence of language is complex
  2. Language quite obviously changed, became complexified and diversified
  3. We say that Intelligence came first before language:
    1. You need a brain that will tell your vocal tract what to-do
    2. Human developed tools without the use of communication
    3. Without intelligence, the brain cannot receive nor send out messages to the person, which causes the person unable to communicate
  4. So we believe that intelligence came first before language

Critique

Hominids Evolution Summary

Human beings were considered as the most intelligent and complex animals on Earth. That is because our ability to use language, our behavior, and our unique characteristics are matched by no other species. Scientists have been arguing about the age of human existence, and according to fossil records, the oldest fossil found is called Australopithecus, which was nearly 3.2 million years old. There were also other fossils found that proves how human has evolved and how long we existed, such as the Mungo Man Skeleton, Homoerectus, etc.

Scientists have been studying about how human has evolved into our current form, and argued about our evolution through many centuries. However, there are evidences that shows we were evolved from apes, or animals looked similar to monkeys. As an important part to our evolution, our hip has taken an important place. At first our ancestors have smaller hips than what we have now, and they were unable to stand up straight and unable to do different movements comparing to us today. As we evolves, our hips have developed larger and was able to support our upper body weight and letting us to stand straight and move about more freely.

Fossils were found to prove our age of existence, and act as proves for our evolution. Homoerctus, fossil that existed for 1 million years and disappeared 500,000 years ago. Mungo Man Skeleton, skeleton fossils that has an age of between 15,000 to 60,000 years old, and according the lab studies, these fossils have proved that our most recent ancestor lived 200,000 years ago in Africa. Besides from human body structure fossils, there are also brain structure that even existed before the evolution of human beings. According to fossil record, the first brain structure appeared in reptiles around 500 million years ago. The functions of this hindbrain included breathing, heart beat regulation, balance, basic motor movements, and foraging skills. Evolution is a process of acquiring more and more sophisticated structures, not simply the addition of different structures. Therefore, the modern human brain contains the hindbrain region, often called the protereptilin brain, and it is the seat of fundamental homeostatic functions. The major structures found in this region of the brain are the Pons and Medulla.

Although we were still unsure about how long we human have existed, but scientists continued their research and were finding new information every day in order to answer unsolved questions about hominids. Human beings are continuing to evolve nowadays and so is our intelligence, also that another reason which proved us humans as the most complex animals on Earth is due to our intelligence and our senses of thoughts.

Jing Liang

Hominid Outline

  1. Knowing language before intelligence is as impossible as a person who can do multiplication and division but can't count to ten.
  2. The theory of mind, whereby we understand other peoples' mental states, is an extension of social intelligence, and we need it for the use of language.
  3. Language is closely linked to social intelligence evolved as an extension of it. Language requires complex and robust computations for understanding, generation and learning.
  4. We use language to influence what other people know and intend to do. Thus if we did not have any idea about what other people know' we could hardly use language effectively.
  5. Language is used for social purposes. Therefore we expect language came after social intelligence, particularly to that part of social intelligence - the theory of mind - which is specifically about other peoples' knowledge and goals.
  6. Language require intelligence to learn.

Hominid Summary

Hominid refers to members of the family of humans. It consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes. The split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago.

There are many species of hominid. Our earliest ancestors belong to the genus Australopithecus. There were two characteristics that leaded to the evolution of human. One is that they were bipedal. This means that they were able to walk upright on two legs. The other characteristic of the Australopithecus was that they had large brains with a greater volume, relative to body weight, then apes had.

Another genus in hominid is Homo. The fist member of our genus is the Homo habilis. It has a skull with a volume of about 640 cubic centimeters. Because they use tools they were name Homo habilis. Homo means man and habilis means handy. Homo habilis was short, around 1.2 meter tall and lived in Africa for 500,000 years and then was extinct and replaced by a new species of human with an even larger brain. The next species that evolved was the Homo erectus. Many specimens have been found, and they all indicate that Homo erectus was distinctly human. Some of the men known as Java man and Peking man are recognized as Homo erectus. The skull of Homo erectus had prominent brow ridges like modem humas. They have smaller teeth and a less protruding face than Australopithicus and Homo habilis.

We belong to the species Homo sapians sapians. Modern forms of Homo sapians sapiens first appeared about 120,000 years ago. Modern humans have an average brain size of about 1350 cubic centimeter and we still exist today.

David Bituin

Outline

  1. Closing Statement
    1. Overall intelligence came before language.
    2. Without intelligence they wouldn't be able to speak.
    3. They were able to make beautiful tools before they were able to communicate.
    4. The pharynx of homo erectus and neanderthalensis pharynx was shorter meaning that their vocal tract couldn't allow them to have any form of articulated speech.
    5. They needed intelligence to be able to function their vocal tract.
    6. They conducted an experiment on a Japanese island where they gave monkey's food and fruit and eventually the food gained sand and they young monkey's were able to wash it off and soon other young monkeys and the mothers started to wash the food off.
    7. This means that they have intelligence to show each other.
    8. They had beautiful tools which mean they had intelligence.

Critiques

New Outline

  1. Intelligence came before language.
  2. On a Japanese island they conducted an experiment in which they are gave young monkeys food and then the fruits got sand on it so the young monkey's eventually learned to wash the food off and soon other young monkey's started doing it and then mothers, but the fathers did not want to wash it off. This proves that the monkey's had the intelligence enough to figure out to wash it off and show others to wash it off.
  3. In the earlier forms of humans like the homo neanderthal it had a short pharynx keeping it from being able to have articulated speech.
  4. The modern human has a longer pharynx, which allows it to make different sounds and have articulated speech.
  5. Scientists believe that the intelligence began with the children, which led to the upbringing of language.
  6. When children are little they can just make a few noises but as they grow older and more intelligent and they are more capable to use their vocal tract and speak.
  7. This shows that the intelligence came before communication.
  8. They conducted an experiment at a lab where they split up two groups and taught one group how to make beautiful stone tools by using communication and teaching the other group by silent example.
  9. They found that the results were the same and that they were able to make things without communication just by use of intelligence.
  10. The Neanderthals made beautiful tools, which showed that they had intelligence and no sign of communication of any kind was shown.

Summary

When they talk about Homo sapiens they believe that they came from the same family as chimps and primates. Many people believe in the theory that humans came from a common ancestor as the chimps and primates but many people also do not. Scientists have found to believe that our most recent ancestor lived in Africa 200,000 years ago. The Australopithecus is the oldest found ancestor and it was 3.2 million years old. Human's ability to use language makes us the most advanced species on Earth. The first sight of a brain was found in a reptile. Their brain regulated heartbeat and temperature and simple things like that. The brain then went under some dramatic changes and became the human brain, which has advanced things like sexual, emotional, and fighting behaviors. People believe evolution to be the adaptation to a species environments and surroundings. The Cro-Magnon's, which arrived in Europe 40 thousand years ago brought behaviors that were similar to humans. These Cro-Magnon had common human practices like burial, painting, burial, and understanding of materials. Humans looked nothing like the Levant anatomically. The humans looked more like the Levantine Neanderthals anatomically. The Homo neanderthalensis had the same size brain as Homo sapiens but a different shaped skull. Scientists believe that there were more than just neural changes in the brain to the current species. Scientists believe that between 60 and 50 thousand years ago there was an event that happened that improved the human brain to become the way it is now. They have only found that the time period doesn't fit the event that could have happened. Homo neanderthalensis had a mastery of the natural world. People believed that since the neanderthalensis made such beautiful stone tools they did have some kind of verbal communication. Japanese researchers did an experiment in which they separated two groups and let one group use non verbal skills and the other use verbal skills to make the same kind of tools. They came to believe that the Neanderthals had no kind of verbal communication. Scientists have proven that natural selection cannot create anything and does not propel anything into existence. They believed that neural change happened genetically and not by adaptation to anything. On a Japanese island scientists conducted an experiment which they gave children fruits. Soon the fruits became to be covered by beach grit and the children eventually learned to wash them. The adults took a longer time to catch on to this and this is why scientists believed that language and the neural change started with children. They believed that the neanderthal had to small of a pharynx to speak and that the humans longer pharynx allowed it to speak giving it an advantage. The scientists also believe that you need a brain to speak because the brain tells the vocal tract what to do.

Diana Uriarte

Opening Statement Outline

  1. Language before Intelligence
    1. Evidence of brain developing after language existed
      1. Larger brain then before
      2. Creation of tools after communication
  2. Though there is evidence showing that in order to be able to communicate you have to have some

Critique

Outline

  1. Hominids
  2. Language came before intelligence
    1. Different fossils have been found and there are fossils from over half a million years ago that show that the skulls had already developed a vocal tract
    2. Monkeys communicate with each other and they figure things out later and communicate first

Derrel Young

Language Before Intelligence Outline

  1. Rebuttal
    1. The one single aspect of human mental function that is tied with the symbolic processes tan any other, it is surely our use of language.
    2. Language is more important than intelligence on a Japanese island they conducted a experiment were they gave young monkeys fruits and it eventually sand grit and language took place when one monkey washed his fruit of and communicated to the other's to do the same.

Critique

Ericka Bozman

Outline: Language or intelligence?

  1. Theory: language had came before intelligence
    1. Language wasn't the only thing that creatures needed to communicated with each other.
  2. Evidence
    1. A study with monkeys in Japan showed that monkeys communicated before developing intelligence.
  3. Theories
    1. Sculls were found with local tracks which is form of communication
  4. Evidence
    1. Humans were able to talk over half of 1 million years ago